Реферат: Trade Unions Essay Research Paper A trade

Trade Unions Essay, Research Paper

?A trade union is an independant self-regulating organization of workers

created to protect and advance the interests of its members through collective

action.? Over recent years, it has become fashionable in many quarters to

write off Britain?s trade unions, to label them as obsolete institutions out

of touch with new realities and incapable of change. In today?s world of

individual employment contracts, performance-related pay schemes, Human Resource

and Total Quality Management and all the other ingredients of the so-called

?new? workplace, trade unions are often regarded as anachronistic obstacles

preventing success of the market economy. As collective voluntary organizations

that represent employees in the workplace, it is argued, trade unions no longer

serve a useful purpose. The main priority of this essay is to represent the

arguments for and against the relevance of trade unions in todays working

society. Furthermore, I shall comment on the future of the trade union movement,

based upon the facts and findings that helped construct this text. Trade unions

exist because an individual worker has very little power to influence decisions

that are made about his or her job. The greatest advantage in joining a trade

union is because, by doing so, individuals possess more chance of having a voice

and influence in their place of work. By joining forces with other workers, an

individual?s opinions and beliefs regarding their job will also be voiced by

other union members, thus creating a stronger stance against management, if

needed. Therefore, the main purpose of a trade union is to protect and improve

people’s pay and conditions of employment. This objective is usually achieved

through negotiation and representation. Negotiation is where union

representatives discuss with management, issues which affect people working in

an organization. The union finds out the members? views and relays these views

to management. Pay, working hours, holidays and changes to working practices are

the sort of issues that are negotiated. However, not all views will be taken on

board by management; there may be a difference of opinion between them and union

members. Negotiation, therefore, is about finding a solution to these

differences. This process is also known as collective bargaining. ?In many

workplaces there is a formal agreement between the union and the company, which

states that the union has the right to negotiate with the employer. In these

organizations, unions are said to be recognised for collective bargaining

purposes.? People who work in organizations where unions are recognised are

better paid, and are less likely to be made redundant than people who work in

organizations where unions are not recognised. Most collective bargaining takes

place quietly and agreements are quickly reached by the union and the employer.

Occasionally disagreements do occur, and in these cases the union may decide to

take industrial action. ?If the problem cannot be resolved amicably, the

matter may go to an industrial tribunal.? The purpose of industrial tribunals

is to make sure that employees and employers conform to employment laws. They

are made up of people outside the workplace who make a judgement about the case,

based on the employee?s and employer?s point of view. Cases that go to

industrial tribunals are usually about pay, unfair dismissal, redundancy or

discrimination at work. The Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service

(ACAS) is often used to help find a solution to a dispute, which is acceptable

to both sides. ?Its duty under the Employment Protection Act is to promote the

improvement of industrial relations and in particular to encourage the extension

of collective bargaining. Also to develop (and where necessary to reform)

collective bargaining machinery. Its main functions are: advisory work,

collective conciliation, individual conciliation, arbitration, and extended

investigation into industrial relations problems.? Individuals can be

represented by trade unions when they encounter problems at work. If an employee

feels that they are being unfairly treated, he or she can ask the union

representative to help sort out the difficulty with the manager or employer.

Apart from negotiation and representation, many other benefits can be gained by

joining a trade union. One of these benefits is the fact that unions can offer

their members legal representation. Usually this is to help people to get

financial compensation for work-related injuries, or to assist people in taking

their employer to court. Members can also take full advantage of the wealth of

information which can be obtained from unions, of which can prove invaluable.

The kind of information available covers a range of issues i.e. the length of

holiday that an employee is entitled to each year, the amount of pay an employee

would be entitled to if they took maternity leave, and how training can be

obtained at work. ?During the last ten years, trade unions have increased the

range of services they offer their members. These include: education and

training – most unions run training courses for their members on employment

rights, health and safety and other issues. Some unions also help members who

have left school with little education by offering courses on basic skills and

courses leading to professional qualifications. legal assistance – as well as

offering legal advice on employment issues, some unions give help with personal

matters, like housing, wills and debt. financial discounts – people can get

discounts on mortgages, insurance and loans from unions. welfare benefits – one

of the earliest functions of trade unions was to look after members who hit hard

times. Some of the older unions offer financial help to their members when they

are sick or unemployed.? These benefits can be gained by an individual worker

via a subscription fee. The amount varies from union to union and is normally

set at different levels according to the amount people earn. Some unions reduce

the fees for unemployed members. Conversely, there are disadvantages to trade

unions. In today?s high-powered world, with legal protection secured within

almost every situation, it is becoming increasingly difficult for the trade

union movement to operate at its full potential. ?Laws on trade union

organization make it more difficult for unions to represent their members and to

negotiate improvements to their working conditions.? Employers no longer have

to, by law, recognise the trade unions which their employees belong to. This

will be changed by the Government in the summer of 2000, so that employees can

be properly represented by their trade unions. The law also allows employers to

persuade people to give up their rights to be represented by a trade union, by

offering higher wages and personal contracts to employees who agree to give up

these rights. This can almost be classed as a bribe, in which employers pay

workers more to decline from joining a trade union. Also, it is evident that

modern management is functioning at a far more efficient level than previously.

?A move from the entrepreneurial 1980s to the post-entrepreneurial 1990s with

less emphasis on gain and greed, and more on values such as concern for people,

quality, customers and the environment.? The relevance of trade unionism in

todays working society could be argued, but I feel that that there is still a

great need for them. One of the reasons for this is that a lot of the time

people enter into a job with little, or no knowledge of their rights within the

workplace. Trade unions exist to provide this knowledge. It can also be argued

that actual legal representatives, or solicitors, can perform the same

functions, but I disagree. Unlike solicitors, who have to deal with a wide range

of situations, trade unions are a more convenient source for workers to turn to.

They are ideally placed within the organization, and they are totally dedicated

to the main concern, which is to protect and advance the interests of its

members, the workers. I therefore agree with the trade union movement, and

believe that they will exist for as long as there are jobs. How successful they

are will depend on various factors. A progressive fall in the number of jobs in

manufacturing industries in the future, as in the past, will constitute the

decline of trade union membership. So will unemployment, which is currently high

by historic standards. Another factor is the fall in traditional full time

employment, and an increase in part time and temporary workers, who are less

likely to join unions. An increase in the proportion of the workforce employed

by small companies where it is often difficult for unions to organize, as well

as hostile legislation will all comprise possible obstacles for the trade union

to overcome. I am, nevertheless, inclined to believe that the future of the

trade union movement lies with its past. It has managed to overcome major

obstacles in its time, and has come through it damaged, but still existent. For

this reason, I feel that Britain?s trade unions will remain adaptable and

pragmatic enough to grow once again into this new century, and into the next.

Armstrong, M & Murlis, H (1991) Reward Management Second Edition Begg, D

(1987) Economics Second Edition Clark, A & Layard, R (1993) UK Unemployment

Second Edition Jones, J & Morris, M (1986) A-Z of Trade Unionism and

Industrial Relations Taylor, R (1994) The Future of the Trade Unions TUC Company

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