Реферат: Anorexia Nervosa Study Essay Research Paper Eating

Anorexia Nervosa Study Essay, Research Paper

Eating disorders are devastating behavioral maladies brought on by a complex

interplay of factors, which may include emotional and personality disorder,

family pressure, a possible genetic or biological susceptibility and a culture

in which there is an over abundance of food and an obsession with thinness.

Eating disorders are generally characterized as bulimia nervosa, anorexia

nervosa and eating disorders not other wise specified. According to the World of

Psychology anorexia is defined as " an eating disorder characterized by an

overwhelming, irrational fear of being fat, compulsive dieting to the point of

self starvation and excessive weight loss."(World of Psychology Page 317).

There are some causes, symptoms, complications and treatment of anorexia

nervosa. There is no single cause for the eating disorder anorexia but a number

of factors including emotional disorders and cultural influences. Researchers

have shown that emotional disorders such as depression collaborate in causing

anorexia nervosa. This is because most anorexic patients have been found to have

abnormal levels of certain neurotransmitters particularly serotonin, that are

associated with depression and obsessive compulsive disorder. According to a

research conducted by Dr. John .E. Godine of Harvard Medical School "

studies are finding that low blood levels of amino acid tryptophan, a component

in food that is essential to the production of serotonin, can produce depression

and may also contribute to anorexia nervosa" (Psychology Today Page 17, May

97). Researches have also shown that changes in seasons affects both depression

and eating disorders and also that onset of anorexia appears to peak in May,

which is also a peak month for suicide. Anxiety disorders are also very common

with anorexia. Phobias and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) usually precede

the onset of the eating disorder, while panic disorder tends to follow. Studies

have shown that people with anorexia are especially prone to obsessive

compulsive disorder. Cultural influences can also cause anorexia as can be seen

in most western cultures. The social pressures of western cultures certainly

play a major role in triggering eating disorders such as anorexia. On the other

hand, advertisers heavily market weight reductions programs and present anorexic

young models as the paradigm of sexual desirability and on the other hand again,

the media floods the public with ads for junk food. According to the World of

Psychology «over the past quarter century, the ‘ideal’ female figure as

portrayed in the media and by fashion and entertainment industries, has become

even thinner, often to the point of emancipation»(World of Psychology Page

317). Due to cultural influences in a country where obesity is epidemic, young

women who achieve thinness believe they have accomplished a major cultural and

personal victory; they have overcome the temptations of junk food and at the

same time, created an image idealized by the media. This false sense of

accomplishment is often reinforced by the envy of their heavier friends who may

perceive anorexic patients as being stronger and more sexually attractive than

they are. The media definitely plays a major role in the cause of anorexia.

According to the World of Psychology «It is difficult to pinpoint the cause

of this disorder. More anorexic individuals are well-behaved and academically

successful»(The World of Psychology Page 371). Some investigators even

believe that " young women who refuse to eat are attempting to control a

portion of their lives, which they feel unable to control in most

situations"(Psychology Today, May 98). The symptoms of anorexia vary since

most women with the disorder keep it a secret but the major symptom is the

change in size. According to an article from WebMd " the primary symptom of

anorexia is major weight loss from excessive and continuos dieting which may

either be restrictive dieting or binge-eating and purging"(www.webmd.com).

The feet and hands of the anorexic patient may be cold or swollen sometimes. The

stomach is often distressed after eating and is often bloated. Thinking may be

confused or slowed, and an anorexic patient may have poor memory and judgement.

Again all of these symptoms vary from individuals as could be seen in young

women who have diabetes and anorexia. Such people may have a normal weight or

even be overweight but still anorexic. A study conducted by Harvard medical

school psychiatrist Dr. Theodore .A. Stern concluded, «the most bewildering

symptom of anorexia is the distorted body image»(Psychology Today May 96).

In another study people with anorexia tended to have an accurate perception of

their upper body, but over estimated the size of their abdominal and pelvic

area. There are a lot of complications that could arise from anorexia. Studies

of anorexic patients reported death ranging from 4% to 20% (The World of

Psychology Page 317). According to the FDA heart disease is the most common

medical cause of death for people with anorexia. This is because the heart can

develop dangerous rhythms, including slow rhythms known as bradycardia.

Electrolyte imbalances can occur as a result of anorexia. Minerals such as

potassium, Calcium, Magnesium and Phosphate are normally dissolved in the body

fluid. Calcium and Potassium are particularly critical in maintaining the

electric currents that cause the heart to beat regularly. The dehydration and

starvation of anorexia can reduce fluid levels and mineral contents, a condition

known as electrolyte imbalance, which can be of very serious and even life

threatening, unless the fluids and minerals are replaced. Reproductive and

hormonal abnormalities can occur due to anorexia. Anorexia causes low levels of

reproductive hormones, changes in thyroid hormones, and increases the level of

stress hormones, which causes amenorrhea. According to Psychology Today

«long term irregular or absent menstruation is common which eventually may

cause sterility and bone loss. The major scare of anorexia is that it can cause

death. According to the e world of psychology » Unfortunately up to 20% of

those suffering from anorexia nervosa eventually die of starvation or

complications from organ damage"(The World of Psychology Page 371). The

World of Psychology summarizes the complications that could arise from anorexia

and concludes that " anorexics may also develop low blood pressure,

impaired heart function, dehydration, electrolyte disturbances, and/or

sterility"(The World of Psychology Page 371). This is in clear similarity

to the other researches conducted by psychologists and shows the complications

that could arise from anorexia. The major difficulty in treating an eating

disorder like anorexia is often the resistance of the anorexic patient, who

believes that the emancipation is normal and even attractive. According to the

World of Psychology «Anorexia is very difficult to treat. Most anorexic

patients are steadfast in their refusal to eat, while insisting that nothing is

wrong with them»(The World of Psychology Page 371). Most moderately to

severely ill anorexic patients should be admitted to the hospital for immediate

treatment. In addition to immediate treatment of any serious medical problem,

the goal of the anorexic patient is to increase weight. To do this therapy could

be used until the anorexic patient succeeds in overcoming this difficult

disorder. Anorexic patients who are severely malnourished should begin with a

calorie count as low as 1500 calories a day, in order to reduce the chances for

stomach pain and bloating, fluid retention and heart failure. The World of

Psychology summarizes the treatment of anorexia. According to Samuel Wood and

Ellen Green " the main thrust of treatment, therefore is to get the

anorexic individual to gain weight. The patient may be admitted to a hospital, a

few controlled diets, and given rewards for small weight gains and increase in

food intake. The treatment usually includes some type of psychotherapy and/or a

self-help group"(The World of Psychology Page 371). Since anorexia nervosa

has no real treatment, the only real treatment for now could be eating healthy,

exercising moderately and also doing constant medical checkups.

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