Реферат: Columbus

Columbus’ Journey Essay, Research Paper

Columbus, Christopher (1451-1506), Italian-Spanish navigator, who sailed west across the Atlantic Ocean in search of a route to Asia but landed on islands in the Caribbean Sea. Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy. In the mid-1470s he made his first trading voyage in the Aegean Sea. Believing that the earth was smaller than was previously thought and that it was composed mostly of land, Columbus eventually decided that Asia could be reached quickly by sailing west. His request to the king of Portugal to finance his expedition was rejected, and Columbus moved to Spain, where his plans won the support of several influential people. In April 1492 King Ferdinand V and Queen Isabella I agreed to sponsor the expedition.

Columbus’s expedition consisted of the Santa Mar a, under his personal command, and the Pinta and the Ni a, two smaller ships. The fleet sailed from Palos de la Frontera, Spain, on August 3, 1492. Land was sighted before dawn on October 12, and early in the morning the expedition landed on Guanahani, an island in the Bahamas. Columbus claimed the island for Spain and renamed it San Salvador. He also landed on other islands, including Cuba and Espa ola, later called Hispaniola (now the Dominican Republic and Haiti). In early 1493 Columbus returned to Spain, where he was enthusiastically received by Ferdinand and Isabella.

Columbus set sail with a second expedition in September 1493. He landed on the islands of Dominica, Guadeloupe, and Antigua. Columbus established the colony of Isabella near what is now Cape Isabella, Dominican Republic; it became the first European settlement in the Americas. In the spring of 1494 he surveyed the coast of Cuba. In 1495 Columbus established a new capital on Espa ola named Santo Domingo and sailed back to Spain.

IV Third and Fourth Voyages

Columbus set sail on his third voyage in May 1498. His first landing was on the island of Trinidad. He then sighted what is now Venezuela. Arriving at Santo Domingo in August, Columbus found part of the colony in revolt. He placated the rebels and expanded the colony’s gold-panning operations. Meanwhile, adversaries in Spain convinced the monarchs that Espa ola should have a new governor. In May 1499 the king and queen removed Columbus and appointed Francisco de Bobadilla, who promptly had Columbus arrested and returned to Spain. The monarchs pardoned Columbus and replaced de Bobadilla, but refused to restore Columbus to his post.

Columbus began a fourth voyage in May 1502. After a three-week crossing, he anchored off Santo Domingo, where a hurricane damaged his fleet. Columbus completed repairs on his vessels and sailed to Honduras. He then cruised along the coast of Central America for nearly six months in search of the elusive westward passage across the continent. In January 1503 he landed in Panama and established a settlement there. When his ships foundered near Jamaica in June 1503, Columbus sent to Espa ola for help. Nearly a year passed before the stranded party was rescued. After returning to Spain, Columbus never sailed again.

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