Реферат: Aztecs People Of The Sun Essay Research

Aztecs: People Of The Sun Essay, Research Paper

The Aztecs: People of the Sun

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The Aztecs were an American Indian people who ruled a mighty empire in Mexico from

the 1400’s to the 1500’s. The Aztecs had one of the most advanced civilizations in the

Americas and built cities as large as any in Europe at that time. They also practiced a

remarkable religion that affected every part of their lives and featured human sacrifice.

The Aztecs built towering temples, created huge sculptures, and held impressive

ceremonies all for the purpose of worshipping their gods. Their magnificent empire was

destroyed by the Spaniards in the year 1521, but the Aztecs left a lasting mark on

Mexican life and culture.

The majority of the Aztecs lived in what is now called the Valley of Mexico. Located at

an elevation of over 7,000 feet, the large valley has housed many great cities. From

the massive pyramids of Tenochtitlan, to the inhabitants of the vast hub of modern

Mexico City, the great valley has been the heartland of many empires. The mighty

Aztecs were the last indigenous group of people to enter the Valley of Mexico.

Like many other pre-Columbian cultures, the Aztecs developed their own political

system, religion, social structure, agricultural techniques, lifestyle and world view. The

Aztecs were truly unique.


The early Aztecs were semi-nomadic hunters and farmers. According to legend, in

about 1000 AD the Aztecs left their mythic, island homeland of Aztlan in the desert

frontiers of northern Mexico to begin their 100-year migration south to the Valley of

Mexico. Led by their powerful patron god, Huiziloposhtli, they continued their migration

southward, stopping along the way to plant crops, to build temples for their gods, and

to offer human sacrifices in their honor. From groups they encountered as they

traveled, the Aztecs adopted new customs and traditions. The Aztecs were becoming a

very religious people.

When the Aztecs reached the Valley of Mexico in about 1193, this fertile inland basin

was already heavily populated and little land was left for them to colonize. The Aztecs

appeared rude and uncivilized to the members of the older city-states that clustered

around the basin. For about another 100 years they continued to look for a permanent

home. As they continued their search they served as mercenary soldiers and servants

for their powerful neighbors. They continued to absorb the traditions, manners, and

customs of the more advanced and established communities that surrounded them. As

the Aztecs grew in number, they established superior military and civil organizations.

According to the famous legend, the Aztecs finally settled at a spot where an eagle sat

upon a cactus eating a snake. This was a sign foretold by their patron god. The sign,

found by the priests, finally appeared on a small island in Lake Texcoco. By 1325, on

the island, the Aztecs built a temple to Huitziposhtli and began to construct the city of

Tenochtitlan, the “Place of Prickly Pear Cactus Fruit.” Over the next 200 years, the city

slowly became one of the largest and most powerful cities of the world, and was the

giant heart of the Aztecs empire.


To make a large capital city, many things had to be done to the land before they began

building. The middle of a lake was not exactly the best place to build a city. There had

to be some way for the Aztecs to increase their land area. Since Lake Texcoco was a

shallow lake, it was more or less easy for the Aztecs to build up the land to make

artificial islands. The Aztecs called this process chinampas and it was basically just

piling up mud from the lake bottom to make marshy islands.

Causeways and bridges were built to connect the city to the mainland, aqueducts were

constructed, and canals were dug throughout the city for easy transportation of people

and goods. Tenochtitlan was also located near the powerful city-states Texcoco and

Tlateloco. Religious structures dominated the landscape, the most amazing of which

was the giant stepped, limestone faced pyramids on which temples were erected. The

most amazing of which were the imposing pyramids of the Sun and the Moon along the

Avenue of the Dead.

At the heart of the city was a walled sacred precinct somewhat similar to the forbidden

city of China. The precinct was dominated by the Temple Mayor, a massive pyramid

topped with dual temples dedicated to the god of rain and the god of the sun. Temples

dedicated to other gods along with schools for the nobility, living quarters for priests,

and a ritual ballcourt was also located in the precinct. The precinct contained as many

as 78 buildings and must have been immense.

Adjacent to the sacred precinct was the palace of Montezuma the palace had

numerous rooms and apartments, large open courtyards, storage rooms, judicial

chambers, servants’ quarters, beautiful gardens, an aviary and a zoo. The rest of

Tenochtitlan stretched into the lake covering artificial islands connected by canals and


The people of Tenochtitlan had a calendar and a system of numbers, and practiced a

form of hieroglyphic writing. They also made astronomical observations which they

applied to the orientation of their monuments and their system of divination. Goods

were brought to the city by tribute agreements with territories, and many goods were

exported to be traded with other parts of the Aztecs Empire and Central America. As a

result of its location and superior organization, the city flourished.

By the time the Spanish led their conquest, the great market was attracting up to

60,000 people daily. In 1519, over 1 million people inhabited the Valley of Mexico. As

many as 300,000 people lived in Tenochtitlan at this time. People from all corners of the

Empire were drawn to this strange and beautiful city. Artists came to employ their skills

in the service of the ruler. Warriors won fame and fortune in battles of conquest.

Traders with their caravans carried exotic treasures to the great marketplace. Foreign

rulers paid state visits to the court of Montezuma. In the market, people traded for

everyday things, not for luxury items. In the city center, citizens listened to priests,

went to the healers, dined on their favorite foods from the market, and visited with

friends and relatives. It was truly a remarkable place.


The Aztecs society was structured in a hierarchy with nobles at the top. Social status

was determined primarily at birth. All members of the nobility could trace their lineage

to the first Aztecs ruler Acamapichtli. The only way one could rise up to another class

in the system was to perform an outstanding military achievement.

Aztec society had four main classes: nobles, commoners, serfs, and slaves. The nobles

usually held high military offices and government positions. However, nobles were also

teachers, priests, and bureaucratic officials. The nobles controlled most of the wealth

in Aztec society. Obviously, their lifestyles were different and more luxurious than those

of the commoners and slaves. Most nobles also had their own private land or received

extra government land for use during their term in public office. Commoners made up

the majority of the Aztec population, and many of them made a living by farming their

government owned plots. The commoners were the backbone of Aztec society, forming

the large labor and military forces that maintained and controlled most of the empire.

The serfs worked the land held by the nobles and remained on the land when a new

noble acquired it. Slaves were considered property, but their children were born free.

Most of the slaves were prisoners of war, criminals or people who could not pay their

debts. The Aztecs also bought slaves from other groups. Social structure was an

important thing in the lives of every Aztec.


Religion was extremely important in Aztec life. The people devoted much of their time

to religious practice and even waged war largely to obtain prisoners to sacrifice to their

various gods. Much of the Aztec religion was based on traditions already established in

ancient Meso-America. Older gods from ancient cultures were the basis for the gods

they worshipped, but new gods were always being added to the list.

The Aztecs performed ceremonies in the gods’ honor that included gifts of incense,

flowers, birds, and animals. These offerings were usually given to ?happy? gods, mainly

Quetzalcoatl. Unfortunately, human sacrifice was also included in the list of offerings,

whose hearts and blood were considered the supreme gift. Huiziloposhtli, the god of the

sun and war, was the god that demanded the most sacrifices. Human and animal

sacrifices were a major part of Aztec religion. For warriors, the ultimate honor was to

be slain in battle or to volunteer for sacrifice in a major ritual. Prisoners were often

used for less important rituals. In the important ritual of human sacrifice, the priests

would take the victim to the heights of the pyramids where they would stretch the

victim over a convex stone. One of the Aztec priests would then slice open the victim?s

chest with a sharp knife and evict his heart as a tribute to the gods. The Aztecs

believed that the gods needed human hearts and blood to remain strong, one of the

reasons sacrifices were so important. After the heart had been removed from the

victim, the priests would boil the body and members of the village would consume it as

an act of ritualistic cannibalism. They may have thought that the dead person’s

strength and bravery passed to anyone who ate the flesh.

Men were usually the victims of such sacrifices but women and children were also

sacrificed. Women were sacrificed at a fall festival honoring the mother goddess of

growing ripe corn. They were decapitated and their bodies were consumed. Children

were sacrificed to mainly two gods: the god of rain, Tlaloc, and the god of fire,

Xiuhtecuhutli. Children sacrificed to Tlaloc were usually strangled or drowned, and

children sacrificed to Xiuhtecuhutli were usually tossed into fire, roasted on hot coals,

or boiled to death. While each victim died in a different way all victims had their hearts


The Aztecs held many other religious ceremonies in which nobles and commoners alike

participated. Throughout the year people were called upon to participate in colorful

performances that pleased the gods. The performances were held outside on the steps

of the pyramids and in the great plazas. These ceremonies included musicians who

played various musical instruments and dancers who would parade around the pyramids

and through the city streets. Most of the other religious activities took place inside

walled ceremonial temples on top of the giant pyramids. Priests would climb the huge

stairways to the temples and give gifts to the gods. There were also ceremonial

centers in which the priests would reside and people would come to pray and give

offerings to the gods. The centers also included gardens, living quarters for the priests,

and racks to hold the skulls of sacrificial victims. Many centers also had a playing court

for a popular game called lachtli, that is somewhat like basketball. The players (usually

nobles) tried to hit a rubber ball through a ring with their hips and knees. They could

not use their hands or feet in the game.

The priests also played a large part of Aztecs religion. The priests led the people in the

offering of blood sacrifice to the sun god, Huiziloposhtli, both from their own bodies and

from the sacrificial victims. The priests also taught the dances, music and drama that

were used in the ceremonies. Thousands of priests served Aztec religion in temples. All

priests followed a highly structured daily routine. These duties included many things

such as, sweeping the temples, making offerings to the gods, burning incense, keeping

the temple fires burning, fasting, and performing self-sacrifice to Quetzalcoatl. Patricia

de Fuentes, a highly regarded Aztecs research scientist describes the priests- ‘The

priests went about…blackened and wasted and haggard of face. ?They wore their hair

hanging down very long…so that it covered them…At night they walked like a

procession of phantoms to the hills where they had their temples and idols and houses

of worship.? The priests must have indeed been intriguing to see.

One of the most exciting rituals of Aztec religion was the honoring of the god

Tezcatlipoca, the patron god of Aztec rulers. Tezcatlipoca was honored at a yearly

ceremony in which a handsome young male was chosen from a group of warriors to

impersonate the god. The young impersonator lived in luxury for one year. He learned

many things during this period. He learned to play the flute, to hold a smoking tube, to

carry flowers and to speak graciously. Throughout the year he moved freely about the

city. All the people he met bowed before him and greeted him as the god himself.

During the year the young warrior was taken before Montezuma, who gave him precious

gifts of gold and turquoise, fine clothes and many other luxuries. Twenty days prior to

the ceremony, the impersonator was stripped of his beautiful clothes and dressed as a

warrior once again. He was given four wives that would pleasure him until the day of his

death. On the day of the great ceremony the youth was taken to a small temple south

of the city where he was promptly sacrificed. That very day, another young man was

chosen to impersonate Tezcatlipoca and the cycle started over once again. This is

truly one of the more fascinating stories of Aztec religion.


The typical Aztec household consisted of a husband and a wife, their unmarried children

and a number of the husband?s relatives. All members of the family helped with the

household work. The husband?s responsibility was to support the family usually by

farming or craftwork. The wife?s duties included weaving clothing and cooking the

family?s food. Family activities often took place in the patio: meals were cooked,

children played, and neighbors stopped in to chat and exchange local news.

Boys were educated by their fathers until the age of about 10. They then went to a

school run by their neighborhood. These schools provided general education and military

training. There were also temple schools that prepared boys to become priests or other

leaders. Some girls attended the temple schools, but the majority learned all their skills

at the home. The Aztecs married at an early age, about 16. The family was, more or

less, important in Aztec life.


Agriculture formed the basis of the Aztec economy. Many farmers lived outside the

great city on small plots of land, or chinampas. Chinampas were one of the most

intensive systems of agriculture ever developed. It was not easy providing food for the

thriving capital. As the empire expanded and the population increased, more food was

needed. Corn, beans and squash were the principal crops in Tenochtitlan. Corn, the

crop in the most demand was crown in many varieties, sizes, and colors. A strange and

mystical relationship existed between the Aztecs and corn. Several gods were

associated with corn, and corn was demanded as a sacrifice by many of the gods. Corn

was honored in all its various forms, as seeds, small plants and as mature plants. Aztec

farmers also grew fruits of many kinds as well as tomatoes, avocados, chili peppers,

and herbs. Chilies were very popular and were the basic seasoning for almost all foods.

Many flowers also were grown on the chinampas. The Aztecs loved flowers, that they

used in religious rituals, decorations, and in temples. They were also made into

bouquets to be carried around and enjoyed for their beauty as well as their aroma.

Aztec farmers live with their families in mud-walled thatch-roofed huts on their plots of

land. These houses only consisted of one room with a dirt floor covered with reeds for

sleeping. The family rose with the sun to begin work and the day ended when darkness

fell. The main meal, eaten in the middle of the day, consisted of tortillas and beans,

seasoned with salt and chilies.

Meat was in very short supply so the Aztecs rarely ate it. Farmers did, however, raise

turkeys, ducks and small dogs that were reserved for only the very wealthy. Usually

the only meat the farmers ever ate was collected in the lake. Things such as fish,

turtles, frogs, mollusks, crustaceans, insects, grubs, and salamanders that were

gathered on the lake were eaten only during special occasions. The lake also provided

an ?interesting? source of protein. Green lake scum that tasted like cheese was dried

into small bricks. This high-protein food was often carried by warriors into battle.

Times were not easy for the farmers. Farmers worked very hard and gained very little.

Farmers could, however be guaranteed a place to live and work for their lifetime in a

well organized, structured society.

Aztec cooking would be considered rich and spicy by our standards. Most dishes had

sauces flavored with chili peppers and little else. Hunting provided most of the meat in

the typical Aztec meal. The chief game animals were deer, rabbits and game birds. The

typical midday meal consisted of a meat item, some potatoes or beans, tortillas,

tomatoes, and an alcoholic beverage called octli. For dessert, honey and tortillas were

popular, along with a rich chocolate drink.


In Aztec culture, art and religion were not easily separated. Art was used to tell others

the concepts of religion. In Tenochtitlan huge stone sculptures of the gods were

created and placed in the temples and public plazas of the city. The symbols of each

god were always show the same so they could be recognized by worshipers. Although

most art was religious in nature, some sculptures had no religious meaning. Aztec also

portrayed many different animals and people. The sculptors only used simple wood and

stone tools, bird bones, fiber cords, water and sand to carve the hard volcanic stone.

These artists were some of the finest in all of the Americas. Unfortunately, little Aztec

art has been preserved. Since most of the art was religious oriented it was destroyed,

along with almost everything else, when the Catholic Spaniards took over in 1521.

Art was also used in war. Artisans would paint spears, masks and shields with images of

fierce animals and gods of war and strength. Skulls were also a very popular form of

Aztec art. The skulls would be made of stone, gold, or crystal. This fascination with

skulls is even carried over to modern day Mexico where El Dia De Los Muertos, or The

Day of the Dead is celebrated.


Children were a much desired, gift from the gods. They were brought into the work by a

midwife who cut the umbilical cord. The midwife bathed the new baby and welcomed

him or her with words or affection and warnings about the nature of the world. Once

the baby was welcomed into the family by relatives and neighbors, an astrologer

selected a day for the naming ceremony. After the child was given a name, small boys

ran through the neighborhood streets, announcing the baby?s name at every door. A

banquet followed the announcements, during which guests were given flowers, and

pipes or tobacco to smoke. Friends, neighbors and relatives would feast and celebrate

all night during the ceremony. Among noble and wealthy families, the celebration was

on a larger scale, rich with food and gifts. Celebrations of the poor were more modest.

Throughout childhood, girls and boys were taught their responsibilities by their mothers

and fathers. From an early age, mothers taught daughters how to spin thread on a

spindle, how to weave cloth on a loom, how to grind corn on a stone and help prepare

the family?s meal. All women in Aztec society were expected to be accomplished

weavers and cooks. From an early age, fathers taught their sons to carry water and

firewood, to collect and bring home whatever people dropped at the local market, and

how to fish with a net from a canoe.

All children were expected to conform to the rules of Aztec society and to work and

contribute to the needs of the household. The disobedient child was SEVERELY

punished. A disobedient child was punished by being held over the smoke of a fire in

which red chili peppers were burning. This was extremely painful to the eyes and burns

could become severe. Parents and grandparents were always giving advice on proper



Warfare was very important to Aztec society because it was considered a religious

duty. Aztecs fought not only to enlarge their powerful empire, but to gain prisoners to

sacrifice to the gods as well. The highest goal for a young man was to become a

successful warrior. All able men were trained to be warriors, but only members of the

nobility made up the prestigious Eagle and Jaguar Warriors. Men who took many

captives in battle were rewarded. They gained land, high social rank and important

government offices.

Aztec methods of combat were designed to capture the enemy rather than kill him. The

chief weapon was a wooden club with sharp pieces of obsidian. This weapon was

effective for disabling an opponent without killing him. The Aztecs also used bows and

arrows and spears. For protection, warriors carried wooden shields and wore padded

cotton armor.


Montezuma was the ruler of the Aztec Empire when Hernan Cortes of Spain landed on

Mexico. Emperor Montezuma was born about 1480 and is perhaps the cause of his great

empire?s collapse in 1521. Unlike previous Aztec rulers, who were great warriors and

thinkers, Montezuma II was weak and incompetent.

When the Spaniards arrived in 1519, Montezuma was unsure if these strange

newcomers were men or powerful gods. Because of this, instead of fighting the

Spaniards he tried to get rid of them by trickery, magic, and offering gifts. When this

failed, Montezuma allowed Cortes to enter Tenochtitlan without a battle and received

him in his court. This turned out to be a grave error. Montezuma was taken prisoner

without resistance, but the brutal conduct of the invaders angered the inhabitants of

Tenochtitlan. The Aztecs were revolted at this treatment by the Spaniards. They

managed to drive out the foreigners out of the city for a while, but when the Spanish

did take over the city once again the inhabitants revolted. Cortes called on Montezuma

to stop the revolt, but the Aztec ruler was stoned while addressing his subjects. After

the stoning, there was a large battle. The furious Aztecs ousted the Spaniards from

their city once and for all; or so they thought. Three days later Montezuma died of

massive head injuries.

The Aztecs thought their enemies had departed for good and would never return. The

city returned to its normal daily and ceremonial routine. Unfortunately, things were not

very normal for long. A plague of smallpox spread rapidly through the city. The

inhabitants of the Americas had no immunity to this new disease brought on by the

Spanish. The disease killed thousand of people, including the new Aztec ruler.

On April 18, 1521, much to the Aztecs surprise, the Spanish marched back to

Tenochtitlan with large forces of Indian allies and 900 soldiers. The soldiers constructed

large boats to hold men and canons. On May 31, 1521, Cortes began his final siege of

the great city. The boats sailed off the mainland and arrived at the island where

horsemen and cavalry could be brought into the city. With this final task accomplished,

the soldiers poured into the city. The siege of the capital lasted 75 days, causing great

suffering to the people of Tenochtitlan.

The final battle for Tenochtitlan was fought in the great marketplace. Nobles, warriors,

and women alike made their last dying effort to capture the city. Unfortunately, this

was too little, too late. Of the 300,000 Aztec defenders, only about 60,000 survived.

The city was in a shambles. The great streets were lined with the bodies of the dead.

Entire areas of the city were demolished, leaving only piles of rock behind. Within two

years the city was totally leveled, homes were destroyed, temples burned, almost

nothing was left standing. The Aztec capital had fallen.

Very soon after this tragedy Spanish adventurers, priests, and soldiers rushed to the

new land to look for fame and fortune, and to convert souls. A few came to make their

homes, others came to convert the Indians to Catholicism. Most, however, came to

just gather up the wealth of this new land. The great reign of the Aztecs had come to

a close.


Aztec artifacts were almost completely wiped out with entrance of the Spaniards. Many

things the Aztecs created are gone and little Aztec architecture remains. The

Spaniards considered it their duty as Christians to wipe out the temples and all other

traces of Aztec Religion. Unfortunately, this means we do not know as much about the

Aztecs as we could. However, archaeologists have found the site of the Great Temple

in downtown Mexico City where Tenochtitlan was once located. Archaeologists have

uncovered all four sides of the building and recovered about 6,000 objects, including

jewelry, pottery, statues, wall carving, and remains of human and animal sacrifices.

They have also restored some other Aztec buildings.

After the Spanish arrival, Aztec culture came to an abrupt end. Art, literature,

customs, religious figures, and almost every trace of the Aztecs were destroyed.

However, some Aztec heritage still survives in the midst of modern day Mexico. They

are the largest aboriginal group in Mexico and retain their ancient Aztec language. Their

religion is also a combination of Roman Catholicism and Aztec tribal religion.

Thousands of people in Mexico have Aztec ancestors, and many of them speak a

modern form of the language of ancient Tenochtitlan, Nahuatl. Many Mexican place

names come from nahuatl. Foods that come from the Aztec include chili, chocolate, and

tacos. They have become popular in many countries. Descendants of the Aztec live

many places including the United States. The Aztec civilization may be gone, but it will

never be forgotten.


?Aztec.? Information Finder 1994 ed.

McDowell, Bart. ?The Aztecs.? National Geographic, December 1980. p. 47

Day, Jane. Aztec: The World of Moctezuma. (Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1992) p. 5

?Aztec.? Information Finder 1994 ed. Reed, Alma M. The Ancient Past of Mexico. (New

York: Crown Publishers, 1966) p. 7

Day, Jane. Aztec: The World of Moctezuma. (Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1992) p. 6

Montes, Augusto F, Molina. ?The Building of Tenochtitlan.? (National Geographic,

December 1980) p. 49

?Aztec.? Information Finder 1994 ed.

Heyden, Doris, and Luis Francisco Villasenor. The Great Temple and the Aztec Gods.

(Mexico City: Minutiae, Mexicana, 1984) p. 36

Heyden, Doris, and Luis Francisco Villasenor. The Great Temple and the Aztec Gods.

(Mexico City: Minutiae, Mexicana, 1984) p. 36

Day, Jane. Aztec: The World of Moctezuma. (Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1992) p. 17

Day, Jane. Aztec: The World of Moctezuma. (Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1992) p. 17

Day, Jane. Aztec: The World of Moctezuma. (Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1992) p. 17

?Aztec.? Information Finder 1994 ed.

McDowell, Bart. ?The Aztecs.? National Geographic, December 1980. p. 51

Day, Jane. Aztec: The World of Moctezuma. (Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1992) p. 21

?Aztec.? Information Finder 1994 ed.

Heyden, Doris, and Luis Francisco Villasenor. The Great Temple and the Aztec Gods.

(Mexico City: Minutiae, Mexicana, 1984) p. 41

Heyden, Doris, and Luis Francisco Villasenor. The Great Temple and the Aztec Gods.

(Mexico City: Minutiae, Mexicana, 1984) p. 41

Heyden, Doris, and Luis Francisco Villasenor. The Great Temple and the Aztec Gods.

(Mexico City: Minutiae, Mexicana, 1984) p. 42

Brown, Dale M., ed. Aztecs: Reign of Blood and Splendor (Alexandria: Time-Life Books,

1992) pp. 21-22

Day, Jane. Aztec: The World of Moctezuma. (Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1992) p. 32

Day, Jane. Aztec: The World of Moctezuma. (Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1992) p. 32

Day, Jane. Aztec: The World of Moctezuma. (Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1992) p. 53

Reed, Alma M. The Ancient Past of Mexico. (New York: Crown Publishers, 1966) p. 23

?Aztec.? Information Finder 1994 ed.

Brown, Dale M., ed. Aztecs: Reign of Blood and Splendor (Alexandria: Time-Life Books,

1992) pp. 26

?Aztec.? Information Finder 1994 ed.

?Aztec.? Information Finder 1994 ed.

Reed, Alma M. The Ancient Past of Mexico. (New York: Crown Publishers, 1966) p. 17

Day, Jane. Aztec: The World of Moctezuma. (Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1992) p. 46

Day, Jane. Aztec: The World of Moctezuma. (Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1992) p. 47

Day, Jane. Aztec: The World of Moctezuma. (Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1992) p. 47

Day, Jane. Aztec: The World of Moctezuma. (Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1992) p. 47

Day, Jane. Aztec: The World of Moctezuma. (Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1992) p. 47

?Aztec.? Information Finder 1994 ed. Nicholson, H. H. Art of Aztec Mexico.

(Washington D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1983) pp. 17-18

Nicholson, H. H. Art of Aztec Mexico. (Washington D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1983)

pp. 19

McDowell, Bart. ?The Aztecs.? National Geographic, December 1980. p. 42

Day, Jane. Aztec: The World of Moctezuma. (Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1992) p. 62

Innes, Hammond D. The

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