Реферат: Landscape Architecture A Essay Research Paper A

Landscape Architecture A Essay, Research Paper

A landscape architect is an individual who arranges and modifies the

effects of natural scenery over a tract of land so as to produce the

best aesthetic effect for the land^?s use. Landscape architecture is the

design profession which applies artistic, cultural, and scientific

knowledge to the design, planning, and development of the land.

Landscape architects accept certain responsibilities related to the

health and welfare of the public and are concerned with resource

conservation of the land. The practice of landscape architecture

requires an appreciation and understanding of natural and social

processes, a creative imagination, and a commitment to preserve or

improve the environment for human use and enjoyment.

Landscape architects plan the most harmonious relationships between the

land and the objects on it by proper combination of open space and

planting, and by wise use of land formation (Concise 151). They may

work on parks, gardens, housing projects, school campuses, golf courses,

or airports. They begin a project by reviewing the needs and desires of

the client. They study the site, mapping such features as the slope of

the land, existing structures and the type of soil. They check local

building codes and availability of utilities, make drawings which

outline the work in detail, and draw up lists of materials to be used.

They then invite bids from construction companies and landscape nursery

companies. With the awarding of the contracts, their work may be

finished, or they may stay on to supervise the work as their client^?s

representative (151).

A major branch of landscape architecture, golf course architecture,

integrates the skills of a landscape architect on a larger scale. The

aim a golf course architect is to create a truly great golf course by

utilizing to the fullest extent possible the potential of a promising

piece of land (Golfplan 1). This potential is expressed in the site^?s

location, slope, vegetation, water features, soil types, climate and

orientation. The role a golf course architect is the realization of

this potential under the constraints of design criteria that separate

the truly great golf course from the ordinary (1).

Landscape architecture, the science and art of modifying land areas by

organizing natural, cultivated, or constructed elements according to an

aesthetic plan (Encarta 1). The elements

include topographical features such as hills, valleys, rivers, and

ponds; and growing things such as

trees, shrubbery, grass, and flowers; and constructions such as

buildings, terraces, roads, bridges, fountains, and statuary. No

unalterable rules exist in landscape architecture because each plot of

ground offers unique problems caused by variation in contour, climate,

and surrounding areas (1).

As early as the third millennium BC, the Egyptians planted gardens

within the walled enclosures surrounding their homes (Encarta 2). In

Mesopotamia, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven

Wonders of the World. In ancient Greece, sacred groves were preserved

as the habitats of divinities. Greek houses included a walled court or

garden usually surrounded by a colonnade. In 5th-Century BC, Athens

public gardens and colonnaded walks attached to the Academy (^?school^?)

and the Lyceum (^?gymnasium^?) were much frequented by philosophers and

their disciples (2).

Domestic architecture in the first half of the 20th Century attempted

to achieve a closer integration of the house with it^?s surroundings, as

seen in the works of Sven Markelius in Sweden, Alvar Aalto in Finland,

and Frank Lloyd Wright in the United States (Encarta 5). The worldwide

economic depression between the two world wars forced a shift from

domestic settings to large-scale public works, in which landscape

architects and planners worked together on entire communities, regional

areas, and vast state and national projects. The proliferation of

shopping malls, new suburbs, cultural centers, revitalized urban cores,

and new educational facilities, has given landscape architects in the

later decades of this century unparalleled opportunities to refine their

art and to create new forms. They have become, in conjunction with

their colleagues in architecture, engineering, planning, and public

office, the shapers of both the future and the present physical

environment (Encarta 5).

The origin of today^?s profession of landscape architecture can be

traced to the early treatments of outdoor space by successive ancient

cultures, from Persia and Egypt through Greece and Rome (ASLA 3).

During the Renaissance, this interest in outdoor space, which had waned

during the Middle Ages, was revived with splendid results in Italy and

gave rise to ornate villas, gardens, and great outdoor piazzas. The

history of the profession in North America begins with Fredrick Law

Olmsted, who rejected the name ^?landscape gardener^? in favor of the

title of ^?landscape architect,^? which he felt better reflected the scope

of the profession (3). The history of landscape architecture places it

where is today.

The career of a landscape architect requires the use of many job

characteristics. Many personal qualifications and qualities are

required to become a landscape architect. Creative ability,

appreciation of nature, talent in art and design, and the ability to

work in detail are important. Business ability is necessary for those

who intend to open their own landscape architectural firms (VGM 241).

Other helpful qualities for landscape architects include such things as

an enjoyment in working with their hands, good communication skills, an

ability to get along well with others, and problem solving skills

(Discover 4).

Physically, the career of a landscape architect is not very demanding.

Physical demands of a landscape architect include reaching, handling,

talking, hearing, close vision, depth perception, and adjustment to

darkness (Discover 5). Like any other job, landscape architecture has

it^?s advantages and disadvantages. Advantages of being a landscape

architect are working indoors and outdoors, traveling, working on a

variety of projects, and good employment opportunities. Some

disadvantages include having to keep redoing plans, working with a

limited budget, working overtime to meet projected deadlines, and

dealing with difficult or demanding clients (5).

Landscape architects usually work for firms that provide landscape

architecture services and other architectural firms (Discover 2). They

may also work for federal, state, and local governments or they may also

be self-employed. Landscape architects spend most of their time indoors

in offices. The remainder of their time is spent outdoors at the

sites. Those who work in large firms may spend more time out of the

office because of travel to sites outside the local area. Salaried

employees in this field usually work a 40 hour week; self employed

landscape architects often work much longer hours (VGM 240).

Landscape architectural salaries vary depending on the years of

experience, geographical location and type of position (Schauman 2).

The Economic Research Institute reported that the average starting

salary was $22,500 in 1996 for a landscape architect. The average

salary was $40,500 for all workers in this field and $54,500 for those

with experience (Discover 4). According to the US Department of Labor,

average annual salaries for landscape architects with the federal

government were $47,000 in 1994. Workers with master^?s degrees start at

about $27,000 (4). A landscape architect^?s fringe benefits will vary

depending upon whether they are employed by a firm or if they are self


The job market for landscape architects is large but is expecting to

increase. Most landscape architects are self-employed or work for

architectural, landscape architectural, or engineering firms (VGM 240).

State and local government agencies employ landscape architects for

forest management; water storage; public housing, city planning, and

urban renewal projects; highways, parks, and recreation areas. The

federal government employs them in the Departments of Agriculture,

Defense, and Interior. A few are employed by landscape contractors.

Landscape architects work throughout the United States, but most job

opportunities exist in areas with favorable weather conditions, such as

Florida, California, and Texas (240).

The outlook for the landscape architectural field is for rapid growth

in this field through the year 2000, although any periods of downturn in

the construction industry could cause temporary slow periods (VGM 241).

There are about 19,000 practicing professional landscape architects.

City and regional planning programs, interest in environmental

protection, and the growth of transportation systems and recreational

areas will contribute to the demand for qualified landscape architects,

as will the general growth in population. Landscape architects usually

advance by moving to a larger firm, by becoming associates in their

firm, or by opening their own business The landscape architectural field

is expected to grow by 17% through the year 2005 in response to new

construction and a growing commitment to environmental planning and

historical preservation (Discover 5).

To become a landscape architect, a person must be completely qualified

in the field. The career of a landscape architect demands extensive

schooling. Schools with architectural or landscape architectural are

located all over the country. Forty-seven colleges offer bachelor^?s

degree programs in landscape architecture that are approved by the

American Society of Landscape Architecture (ASLA-Colleges). Some

colleges of interest are the University of Arizona, the University of

Michigan, the University of Minnesota, and Purdue University. Landscape

architects usually require a bachelor^?s or master^?s degree in landscape

architecture for entry into the profession (Discover 3). The bachelor^?s

degree usually takes four to five years to complete and the master^?s

usually takes another two years. Courses that are taken in college for

the preparation of landscape architecture are anything related to

advanced mathematics, botany, and horticulture (ASLA). Special expenses

of the education would be things such as books and special tools.

College entrance requirements for landscape architects are the same as

any other major since the starting courses are basic.

Practically all states require landscape architects to be licensed

(Discover 3). Licensing is based on the Landscape Architecture

Registration Examination, sponsored by the Council of Landscape

Architecture Registration Boards. Admission to the examination usually

requires a degree from an accredited school, plus one to four years of

work experience. Applicants are tested on all aspects of landscape

architecture (3).

Landscape architecture is a very diverse and rewarding profession.

Although extensive schooling is required, the advantages of this career

outweigh the disadvantages. Landscape architects are individuals who

design and produce a better environment that appeals to the public.


American Society of Landscape Architects. Accredited Programs in

Landscape Architecture. Washington, DC: 1996

American Society of Landscape Architects. What is Landscape

Architecture? Washington, DC: 1997.

Costello, Joan M. and Rita Parsont Wolfson, editors. Concise Handbook

of Occupations. Chicago, Illinois: J.G. Ferguson Publishing Company.

1975. 151

^?Landscape Architecture.^? Discover. Hunt Valley, MD: American College

Testing, 1996.

^?Landscape Architecture.^? Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia. 1996 ed.

Microsoft Corporation, 1993-1995.

^?Landscape Architecture.^? VGM^?s Careers Encyclopedia. Third Edition.

Lincolnwood, Illinois: VGM Career Horizons. 1991. 240-241.

Schauman, Sally. ^?Landscape Architecture.^? ASLA Council on Education.

Washington, DC: 1997.

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