Учебное пособие: Методические указания по практике устной и письменной речи английского языка (специальность романо-германская филология)
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ
Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«ЮЖНЫЙ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
по практике устной и письменной речи английского языка
(специальность – романо-германская филология)
Методические указания разработаны кандидатом филологических наук, доцентом кафедры английской филологии Т.А. Шкуратовой.
Ответственный редактор проф., доктор филол. наук Николаев С.Г
Рецензент: доц., канд. пед. наук Колесина К.Ю.
Компьютерный набор и верстка доц., канд. филол. наук Шкуратовой Т.А.
Печатается в соответствии с решением кафедры английской филологии факультета филологии и журналистики ЮФУ, протокол № 10 от 31 мая 2007 г.
Данные методические указания к курсу «Практика устной/письменной речи английского языка» по теме «В гостинице. Службы быта» предназначены для студентов 3 курса отделения романо-германской филологии факультета филологии и журналистики.
Методические указания состоят из двух тематических разделов, в каждый из которых включены тексты, диалоги, упражнения и задания разной языковой трудности. Это дает возможность преподавателю использовать материал выборочно в зависимости от индивидуальных особенностей аудитории и степени подготовленности студентов.
Основная цель методических указаний — расширение словарного запаса студентов, отработка и дальнейшее совершенствование навыков чтения и диалогической речи. Спецификой данной тематики определен характер и содержание текстов для аналитического, изучающего и ознакомительного чтения, а также подбор иллюстративных диалогов. В заданиях акцент делается на умение студентов применить изучаемую лексику в ситуативных высказываниях, а также на стимулирование устной связной, логически упорядоченной речи.
Предлагаемые для работы тексты, диалоги и упражнения являются источником страноведческих знаний, и их изучение нацелено на расширение кругозора студентов.
I. AT A HOTEL
1 Find Russian equivalents to the following words and phrases.
Make arrangements about a room
to reserve a room
room with private bath
hotel/ bridal/ luxury suite
standard room (Std)
have something free
fill in an arrival card/form
extend a stay
charge an extra percent
fill in a breakfast order
to sign a bill
an order for laundry
to make a telephone call
to dial a number
to book a call
put somebody through
a garden view (GV)
a mountain view (MV)
with a sea view (SV)
run of the house
additional beds or cots can be provided
to be newly furnished
to be decorated in contemporary style
ample wardrobe space
check in/ out
a key-coded card
escalator parking lot
room delivery system
I’m afraid we’re full at the moment.
Do you know who is the manager of the Europe Hotel?
I recommend you to stay at the Consul Hotel.
When the young couple started on a trip they took eight suitcases along with them.
They are going to build a 20-storey hotel in that street.
This hotel accommodates two thousand guests.
A laundry and dry-cleaning service is available.
2 Practise the dialogue.
AT THE HOTEL
В .: Good morning. I'd like to check in.
Reception Clerk.: Do you have a reservation with us?
В .: Yes, I do. I made a reservation by phone last night.
R.C.: Your name, please?
В .: Brian Mitchell from San Francisco.
R.C.: Would you spell your name, please?
В .: M as in «Marry», I as in «Isaak», Т as in «Tommy», С as in «Charley», H as in «Harry», E as in «Edward», double L as in «Lucy».
R.C.: Okay. Let me see. You have a reservation for single room. Is that correct?
В .: Perfectly correct.
R.C.: Have you already decided how many nights to stay?
В .: At last until Wednesday. But I may stay longer than that. When should I inform you about it?
R.C.: Let us know about your decision Tuesday night. You can give us a call until 11 pm.
В .: All right. What's the room rate?
R.C.: 75 dollars per night. Please, fill out the registration card. Print your name and home address.
В .: Should I sign my name?
R.C.: Put your signature right here. Okay, will you pay cash or by credit card?
В .: By credit card. Do you need it right now?
R.C.: You can give me your credit card before cheking out.
В .: By the way, what's the checking out time?
R.C.: One o'clock in the afternoon.
В .: Thank you. I have some additional questions.
R.C.: I'll be glad to answer them.
В .: What about room service?
R.C.: Room service is available from 6 am to 10 pm. You can dial your order from the telephone in your room.
В .: Where is your restaurant?
R.C.: The restaurant is on the 1st floor. We also have a coffee shop. It's right here in the lobby.
В .: Thank you for the information.
R.C.: You are welcome. A bellboy will help you with your luggage. Your room is number 1215. Enjoy your stay.
В .: Thanks.
3 Read the following text. Remember the following rules and regulations.
When travelling people almost always stay at hotels. It is advisable, therefore, to remember the following:
· The first thing to do is to book a room in advance either by e-mail, telephone or telegram. Otherwise you may arrive at the hotel and be told that there are no vacant rooms.
· On arrival at the hotel go to the reception desk in the lobby and confirm your reservation. The clerk will then give you a registration form to fill in and sign (the form is filled in block letters). In smaller hotels you simply sign the visitor's book and give your permanent address.
· At large hotels you may ask for any service by telephone. You tell the operator if you wish to be called at a certain time, you call room service when you want a meal or drinks sent up to your room, valet or maid service if you need something (a suit or dress) cleaned or pressed.
· Let the hotel management know well in advance the day and time of your departure.
4 Discuss the following rules of staying in the hotel.
The hotel is assigned for the temporary stay of the guests during the period which is arranged with the administration of the hotel.
1 The payment for the hotel is made according to the price-list.
2 There is a unique checking-hour at the hotel — 12 o'clock.
3 If you keep money and jewelry in your room it is your own responsibility and not of the hotel.
4 At the request of the guest and with the administration's approval visitors can stay in the guest's room from 8 a.m. till 11 p.m.
5 When leaving the room the quest must:
· not leave taps open;
· close the window;
· put out the light, the radio and the TV-set;
· give the key to the floor-keeper.
6 The guests must keep everything in order. He will have to repay the damage if anything is broken or damaged.
7 The coupons for the hotel should be delivered to the reception-desk.
8 You are not permitted to have some strangers in the room while you are absent; be careful with the fire; don't have big luggage in your room.
The Kingsley Hotel
Bloomsbury Way, London WCIA 2SD Telephone: 071-242 5881 Telex: 21157 Fax: 071-831 0225
ARRIVAL DATE ROOM NUMBER
(Rooms should be vacated by noon on the day of departure)
PLEASE SHOW THIS CARD EACH TIME YOU COLLECT YOUR KEY AND WHEN TAKING BREAKFAST.
May we respectfully advise you that the proprietors cannot hold themselves responsible for any valuables which may be left unattended in the rooms — i.e. money, jewellery or other valuable items. These should be deposited with the Reception for safe-keeping.
Guests are adviseed not to leave the bedroom door keys in the lock on the outside of the door and to keep the room door closed at all times.
BREAKFAST TIMES (Restaurant)
Monday to Friday: 7.30 to 10.00 a.m.
Saturday, Sunday & Bank Holidays: 8.00 to 10.00 a.m.
5 Make up short stories or dialogues using these statements.
1) You are a guest at a hotel. You want to be awakened at 8 a.m. You ring up the desk-clerk and say...
2) You want some of your shirts to be washed. When the chambermaid comes, you say...
3) Leaving the hotel you ask the desk-clerk to have your bill ready for you. When you see the bill, you are surprised. It is not what you expected. You say....
4) You arrive at the hotel with which you have reserved a room in advance (by telegram). The reception clerk says your name tells him nothing. You say...
5) You are leaving the hotel and you want your luggage to be taken down. You ring for the desk-clerk and say...
6) You are flying to Edinburgh tomorrow where you will be spending a few days. They recommend you to stay at the Castle Hotel. Wishing to make a reservation you phone the manager and say...
6 Agree or d isagree with the following statements. Give your reasons.
1) The porter is a person who keeps the rooms in order.
2) It isn't good to reserve a room by telegram.
3) The rates for those who stop for a night or two are lower than for those who stay at a hotel longer.
4) If the guest wants his breakfast in his room, the desk-clerk or manager will bring it to him.
5) Suites are usually the cheapest rooms in hotels.
6) When a national or international congress takes place in the town it is usually very easy to get hotel accommodation.
7) The hotels at seaside resorts are usually full in winter.
8) TV sets and tape-recorders are usually found in every room of a hotel.
7 Fill in the missing phrases.
AT A SMALL HOTEL
Clerk: Good afternoon. Watermill Inn. May I help you?
Y.: Hi, I'd like some information about the inn.
C. Of course. We're located in the town of Rhinebeck, just a two-hour drive from the city.
Y.: What kind of accommodation do you have?
C .: For a very special vacation we have a large honeymoon ...
Y.: Well, I ...
C.: Or if you prefer, you can reserve a smaller
Y.: That's probably ...
C.: Or a double room with a fireplace and a balcony.
Y.: I really think ...
C.: And… of the Hudson River from the balcony is absolutely gorgeous!
Y.: I don't really...
C .: Enjoy beautiful views? Well, the town of Rhinebeck is the perfect place to take an afternoon walk.
Y.: I'd like to ...
C .: And of course, after all that walking, you'll want to relax and have a delicious dinner in our romantic dining room.
Y.: Well, I don't know, I may be ...
C.:… too tired to come to the dining room? Don't worry. Our friendly… is always ready to bring delicious meals to your room.
Y.: Oh, how nice!
C .: Nice? Our ..., Mrs. Montefiore is the nicest person you'll ever meet. She's been making the Watermill Inn a comfortable place for guests for over 20 years.
Y.: What time is ...
C.: Check in? Well you can… anytime after 1 pm and… any time before 12 noon. Now, when would you like your… and what type of room would you like?
Y.: I'm not quite sure ...
C.: You can be sure that the Watermill Inn is the finest small hotel in all of New York state.
Y .: New York? I thought I called Florida.
8 Work with your partner. Discuss or dramatize the situational dialogues .
1) Late at night you arrive at the hotel with which you have reserved a room. The sleepy reception clerk says he can't find your reservation and a hotel is full. He says you had better wait till tomorrow morning. Some guests are supposed to sign out at 10 am.
2) You have been staying at the hotel for 5 days and found that it isn't a very happy place to stay in. Everything here is getting on your nerves — the chambermaids shout loudly early in the morning, they don't change bedlinen in time, the steward is careless, the desk-clerk never does what you ask him to. You want to sign out but you have paid in advance for 10 days.
9 Retell the text.
We took a cab from Union Station to the Ramada Inn. The hotel was within walking distance from the station but Bruce had a very heavy suitcase. The cab had no meter. The cabbie said that fares were determined by taxi fare zones. Bruce later explained that Washington was the exception, not the rule. In most cities, he said, cabs had meters.
At the hotel we checked in without any problems. The desk clerk confirmed my reservation for a double room. We filled out registration forms and got our key. The bellman took Bruce's suitcase up. I wondered how much I should pay him. Bruce said, a one-dollar tip would be OK.
Our room was not a room but a suite. In fact, it was a whole apartment with a kitchenette, a refrigerator and even a bar. On my bedside table I found a Bible. Bruce said, there was one in every hotel room. Can you imagine that?
10 Translate the following sentences into English.
1 Добрый день! Я хотел бы остановиться в вашем отеле. Мне нужна комната на одного с ванной и телефоном.
2 Вы заказывали у нас номер? — Да. Я сделал заказ по электронной почте 10 дней тому назад. — Ваша фамилия? — Щукин. — Все в порядке. Ваш заказ принят. Заполняйте карточку прибытия.
3 Я предполагаю пробыть в этом городе дней восемь. Вы не возражаете, если я оплачу счет при выписке из гостиницы?
4 Какой отель в вашем городе вы можете рекомендовать?
5 Если ваш отель, как вы говорите, набит битком, что бы вы могли мне посоветовать?
6 Заполните бланк карточки прибытия, вы пропустили дату своего рождения.
7 В душе только холодная вода.
8 Смените, пожалуйста, постельное белье.
9 Когда вы сможете постирать мои сорочки?
10 Покажите мне, пожалуйста, мою комнату.
11 Я могу позвонить в город из своего номера?
12 Я прошу отнести мой багаж в холл и вызвать такси. Я уезжаю через четверть часа.
13 Приготовьте мне, пожалуйста, счет.
11 Translate the following into English.
· В Турции ежегодно строится много курортных отелей. В них обслуживают гостей из разных стран. Отели класса «люкс», «делюкс» и «полулюкс» обычно расположены в фешенебельных районах. Они предназначены для обеспеченных клиентов и деловых людей. Номера в отелях класса «люкс» и «делюкс» оснащены современным оборудованием и дорогой мебелью.
· Мотели предоставляют клиентам комфортабельные номера, ужин и стоянку для автомобилей. Курортные отели почти всегда расположены в живописных уголках — в горах, на берегу реки или моря, в лесу.
· Согласно европейской классификации все отели делятся на категории по количеству звезд. Основанием для такой классификации служит качество предлагаемого обслуживания и предоставляемые отелем удобства. Количество обслуживающего персонала зависит от категории отеля. В отеле класса «люкс» один номер могут обслуживать до трех человек.
12 Topics for discussion.
1 Say what things you expect to find in a room in a good hotel. In what ways may a more expensive room differ from a less expensive one?
1 Describe the duties of each of these members of the hotel staff: the manager, a lift boy, a receptionist, a hall porter, a chambermaid, a head waiter.
2 You phone a hotel receptionist. You want to book rooms for yourself, your sister, her husband and two children for two weeks' holiday in June.
3 Describe the occasion when your friend or you came to a big city and could find no accommodation. What did you do?
4 Imagine that you have just arrived at small resort town and are looking for accommodation. What questions will you ask the landlady?
5 You arrive in London and go to a small hotel in Kensington. Describe all that happens and all that you say from the time you go through the door till the time when you find yourself in your room. Then describe the room.
6 Welcome a foreign guest to your city, tell him about the room you reserved for him and about the plans for the next day.
13 Read and discuss the texts.
By Arthur Hailey
а ) Hotels of the Past
«Let me get that straight,» Christine said. «Are you saying that a hotel isn't responsible legally for anything its guests may do — even to other guests?»
«The law's quite clear on that and has been for a long time. A lot of our law, in fact, goes back to the English inns, beginning with the fourteenth century.»
«I'll give you the shortest version. It starts when the English inns had one great hall, warmed and lighted by a fire, and everyone slept there. While they slept it was the landlord's business to protect his guests from thieves and murderers.»
«That sounds reasonable.» «It was. And the same thing was expected of the landlord when smaller chambers began to be used, because even these were always shared — or could be by strangers.»
«When you think about it,» Christine mused, «it wasn't much of an age for privacy.»
«That came later when there were individual rooms, and guests had keys. After that the law looked at things differently. The innkeeper was obliged to protect his guests from being broken in upon. But beyond this he had no responsibility, either for what happened to them in their rooms or what they did.»
«So the key made the difference.»
«It still does,» Peter said. «On that the law hasn't changed. When we give a guest a key it's a legal symbol, just as it was in an English inn. It means the hotel can no longer use the room, or quarter anyone else there.»
b ) Hotels of the Future
«It's more a projection of what hotels are going to be like a few years ahead.
The first thing we'll have simplified is Reception, where checking in will take a few seconds at the most. The majority of our people will arrive directly from air terminals by helicopter, so a main reception point will be a private roof heliport. Secondarily there'll be lower-floor receiving points where cars and limousines can drive directly in eliminating transfer to a lobby, the way we do it now.
Guests with reservations will have been sent a key-coded card. They'll insert it in a frame and immediately be on their way by individual escalator section to a room which may have been cleared-for use only seconds earlier. If a room isn't ready — and it'll happen, just as it does now — we'll have small portable way stations. These will be cubicles with a couple of chairs, wash basin and space for luggage, just enough to freshen up after a journey and give some privacy right away. People can come and go, as they do with a regular room, and my engineers are working on a scheme for making the way stations mobile so that later they can latch on directly to the allocated space.
For those driving their own cars there'll be parallel arrangements, with coded, moving lights to guide them into personal parking stalls, from where other individual escalators will take them directly to their rooms. In all cases we'll curtail baggage handling, using high-speed sorters and conveyors, and baggage will be rooted into rooms, actually arriving ahead of the guests.
Similarly, all other services will have automated room delivery systems — valet, beverages, food, florist, drugstore, newsstand; even the final bill can be received and paid by room conveyor. And incidentally, apart from other benefits, I'll have broken the tipping system, a tyranny we've suffered — along with our guests — for years too long. ...
My building design and automation will keep to a minimum the need for any guest room to be entered by a hotel employee. Beds, recessing into walls, are to be serviced by machine from outside.
All this, and more, can be accomplished now. Our remaining problems, which naturally will be solved, are principally of co-ordination, construction, and investment.»
1 3 .1 Answer the questions.
(a) 1 What were old English inns like? 2 Who protected the guests from thieves? 3 What happened when smaller chambers began to be used? 4 What are the responsibilities of the landlord since the introduction of individual rooms with keys? 5 What does the hotel key symbolize for the guests?
(b) 1 What will be simplified in the new project first? 2 How will guests reach their rooms? 3 Where will guests wait if their rooms are not yef ready? 4 What arrangements will there be for those driving their own cars? 5 In what way will other services be improved?
13.2 Speak about old Russian inns as they are described by Russian writers.
c) History of Hotels in London
Before the 19th century there were few if any large hotels in London. British country landowners often lived in London for part of the year, but they usually rented a house if they did not own one, rather than staying in a hotel. The numbers of business visitors and foreign visitors were very small by modern standards. The accommodation available to them included lodging houses and coaching inns. Lodging houses were more like private homes with rooms to let than commercial hotels, and were often run by widows. Coaching inns served passengers from the stage coaches which were the main means of long distance passenger transport before the railway network began to develop in the 1830s. The last surviving galleried coaching inn in London is the George Inn which now belongs to the National Trust.
A few hotels on a more modern model existed by the early 19th century. For example Mivart's, the precursor of Claridge's, opened its doors in 1812, but up to the mid 19th century London hotels were generally small. In his travel book North America (1862) the novelist Anthony Trollope remarked on how much larger American hotels were than British ones. But by this time the railways had already begun to bring far more short term visitors to London, and the railway companies themselves took the lead in accommodating them by building a series of «railway hotels» near to their London termini. These buildings were seen as status symbols by the railway companies, which were the largest businesses in the country at the time, and some of them were very grand. They included: The Midland Grand Hotel at St. Pancras (closed 1935; due to reopen in modified form in 2007), The Great Western Hotel at Paddington (now the Hilton London Paddington), The Great Northern Hotel at Kings Cross (currently closed for the Channel Tunnel Rail Link works), The Great Eastern Hotel at Liverpool Street (still open under its original name), The Charing Cross Hotel at Charing Cross station (now the Thistle Charing Cross), The Great Central Hotel at Marylebone (now The Landmark Hotel)
Many other large hotels were built in London in the Victorian period. The Langham Hotel was the largest in the city when it opened in 1865, and was also the first building in England with hydraulic lifts. The Savoy, which opened in 1889, was the first London hotel with ensuite bathrooms to every room. Nine years later Claridge's was rebuilt in its current form. The most famous London hotel of all, the Ritz, opened in 1908.
The upper end of the London hotel business continued to flourish between the two World Wars, boosted by the fact that many landowning families could no longer afford to maintain a London house and therefore began to stay at hotels instead, and by an increasing number of foreign visitors, especially Americans. Famous hotels which opened their doors in this era include the Grosvenor House Hotel and the Dorchester.
The rate of hotel construction in London was fairly low in the quarter century after World War II and the famous old names retained their dominance of the top end of the market. The most notable hotel of this era was probably The London Hilton on Park Lane, a controversial concrete tower overlooking Hyde Park. Advances in air travel increased the number of overseas visitors to London from 1.6 million in 1963 to 6 million in 1974. In order to provide hotels to meet the extra demand a Hotel Development Incentive Scheme was introduced and a building boom ensued. This led to overcapacity in the London hotel market from the late 1970s to the mid 1980s. Construction then picked up again, but it was soon curtailed by the recession of the early 1990s and the reduction in international travel caused by the 1991 Gulf War.
In the mid 1990s there was a major acceleration in the number of new hotels being opened, including hotels of many different types from country house style hotels in Victorian houses to ultra trendy minimalist hang outs. At this time some of London's grandest early 20th century office buildings were converted into hotels because their layouts, with long corridors and numerous separate offices, were incompatible with the preference for open plan working, but their listed status made it hard to get permission to demolish them. This period also saw the opening of the first five star hotel in London south of the River Thames, the Marriott County Hall Hotel, and the first two in East London, the Four Seasons Canary Wharf and the Marriott West India Quay, which is also close to the Canary Wharf development. Surprisingly for many years there were no hotels at all in the City of London even though the financial firms of the City were one of the London hotel sector's most lucrative sources of custom, but in recent years over a thousand hotel rooms have opened in the City, and many more are planned. Budget hotel chains such as Travel Inn and Travelodge have also been expanding rapidly in London since the mid 1990s.
II EVERYDAY SERVICES
1 Topical vocabulary.
indespensable in the household
to save a lot of time and labour
the latest model
a moderate/ reasonable price
light in weight
a dishwashing machine
a washing machine
a sewing machine
a vacuum cleaner
a refrigerator/ fridge
an electric floor polisher
a blender/ mixer
a coffee-grinding machine/ coffee-grinder
an electric waffle-maker
a portable electric baking stove
a microwave oven
all purpose electric kitchen appliance
electric lights go out
to change the bulbs
to mend the fuses
multiple service establishment
to fall behind with orders
minor services are done while you wait
minor alterations and repairs
to put on patches
tomend rips and tears
to rip the seams of a garment
to press creased clothing
to sew (sewed, sewn) a button on
to fray (to shred) at the cuffs
to take in/ to let out at the seams
to be a poor cut/ fit
to wrinkle at the waist
to be baggy at the knees
to de tight in the shoulders
to darn socks
to shrink (shrank, shrunk)
to develop and print snapshots
to keep perfect time
to be 5 minutes fast/ slow
at the hairdresser’s/ at the barber’s
a haircut/ clipping
to have one’s hair clipped/ to crop close
hair styler straightener
to have one’s beard/ moustache trimmed
to cut/ pare/ trim one’s nails
to do/ manicure one’s nails
to file one’s nails
to have one’s toenails cut
to have the skin on one’s feet softened
to trim one’s hair at the back and sides
close shave/ clean-shaven
a close/ narrow shave
a safety/ straight razor
at the shoemaker’s
to be worn down
to want repairing
to heel a pair of shoes
2 Study the table.
Establishment Offering It
People Offering It
Laundering & ironing
dry cleaning & dying
dry cleaner’s & dyer’s (shop)
TV/DVD repair shop/ service
motor & car service
document copying & printing/ typing
Xerox machine operator
hairdressing & manicuring/ chiropody (pedicure)
3 Read the dialogue.
YESTERDAY’S LUXURY IS TODAY’S NECESSITY
(John and Mary Brown; Helen — Mary's friend)
Helen: How do you manage to do all the work by yourself, Mary, with a family of four?
Mary: Well, the housework keeps me, busy, you know. As soon as one job is finished there is another waiting to be done. The children are too small to help.
John: Don't forget to say that I do my share. I'm always willing to lend a hand.
Helen: Oh, John, I haven't seen you doing much housework.
John: Oh, haven't you? Who helps with the washing up? Who mends anything that gets broken? And when the electric lights go out who changes the bulbs or mends the fuses? I think I do my share.
Mary: Yes, he's very useful, Helen. Besides, he helps with the children.
John: And I must admit that housekeeping is much easier than it used to be. Times have changed. Now we don’t think what a blessing electricity is. We soon become accustomed to new things and take them for granted. Nobody thinks of electricity as a luxury now. Yesterday’s luxury is today's necessity.
Mary: I don't know what I should do without my vacuum cleaner, washing machine or refrigerator, to say notning of television and the telephone.
Helen: Will you show me yor TV set, John?
John: It’s a new model. With a very stylish silvery body and a liquid-crystal color 800x600 dot resolution TFT screen. The resolution is not large but we like its design; and Mary says it siuts our interior and it’s wall mountable.
Mаrу: That's true. We have no reason to regret. And now let me show you my new washing machine. We’ve purchased it in credit. And I like it so much!
Helen: Is it so special?
Mary: Yes! First of all it uses less energy than most other machines of its class. Then you know how much I loathe ironing. So, the innovative steam programme continuously sprays steam and gently rotates the drum to effectively remove creases and odours from the fabric between washes.
Helen: And what is the capacity?
Mary: This machine has a large 8kg capacity drum to allow you to wash bigger loads and bulkier items at one go.
Jonh: 9 different washing programmes, and for me it’s just press a couple of buttons and Bob’s your uncle!
Mary: But still… It’s a pity that no one has invented an ironing machine yet.
4 Practise the dialogue with your partner.
A.: I’m afraid I’ve got a complaint to make about my washing machine.
B.: I’m sorry to hear it. What’s the matter with it, exactly?
A.: Well, when I turned it on yesterday, there was a blue flash and then it just stopped. So I haven’t been able to finish the wash.
B.: I see. And is it still under warranty?
A.: Yes, we bought it about two months ago.
5 Make up more dialogues using the following clues.
a) Complaint about a refrigerator: Nature of complaint: sudden peculiar noise, motor cut out, had to cook and eat all the frozen food. When bought: three months ago.
b) Complaint about a gas cooker. Nature of complaint: automatic timer is broken, thermostat has stopped working, too; yesterday's dinner was ruined. When bought: six months ago.
c) Complaint about a television set. Nature of complaint: making strange buzzing sound for two days, smell of burning last night, had to switch off — family missed favourite show of the week. When bought: ten days ago.
6 Read the dialogues.
At the Hairdresser’s
Mary: Darling, I hope you haven't forgotten about the party we were imrited to last week?
J о hn: Certainly not, my dear. I was just going to remind you of it.
Mar у: Yen needn’t remind me of such things, John. But you can't expect me to goat to the party looking like that.
John: What's wrong about your appearance? I think you look quite nice.
Mary: That is man all over! He calls it nice with my hair hanging in strands and my fingers that need a manicure.
John: I dare say you are right, Mary. As to me, I need a shave badly. Look here! There is nothing to worry about. We have plenty of time yet before the party.
(No sooner said than done. Mary goes to a hairdresser's.)
Hairdresser: Good afternoon, madam. Would you sit here, please. What would you like?
Mary: I want my hair shampooed and set.
Hairdresser: Very well, madam. Could I help you to put on this cape?
M а r у : Shall I lean over?
Hairdresser: Yes, please. Would you like a colour rinse or tinting?
Mar у : No, thank you. Dyed hair is not very much in yogue now. My hair is naturally auburn. So, after washing it’ll look fine.
Hairdresser: All right. Now I'll just dry your hair and set it. Do you prefer this latest style?
Mar у : Oh, no. It may be beautiful but the trouble is there are so many women going about with this hair style. They look so much alike that one can't tell them apart.
Ha irdresser: Well, would you like to have it done in a knot at the back? I'm sure it'll look nice on you, madam.
Mary: I am not sure, but, good, I rely on you.
(Meanwhile John is having a talk with a barber.)
Barber: Good afternoon, sir. What can I do for you?
John :I want a shave and a haircut.
Barber: Yes, sir.
John : Be careful, my skin is very tender.
Barber: Don’t worry, sir. It happened only once that I cut a customer. He jerked his head and I cut his cheek. But I soon stopped the bleeding. Would you like a hot towel massage?
John: Yes, please. I want to have my moustache and beard trimmed.
Barber: Very good, sir. Now, for the haircut. How short would you like it?
John: Not too close. Don't take too much off on the top.
Barber: I see. Your hair is getting rather thin.
John: Yes. Soon I'll have a splendid bald patch on my top. Just think ot it, once I used to have a mop of hair really: How time flies!
Barber: May I advise you to change your parting? Would you like it on the right side, sir?
(An hour later John and Mary meet at home.)
John: Oh, Mary, you are a regular beauty with this new hairdo. It's awfully becoming to you!
Mary: It is, isn't it? Aren't you a darling too? Looking so young and prosperous. I'm sure all the girls at the party will fall in love witn you at first sight.
At the Tailor's
William: My suit is terribly worn; the cuffs are frayed and the seat of the trousers is shiny; in fact, it’s just about treadbare in parts.
Charles: Yes, I noticed you were .getting rather shabby. I could do with a suit myself, too. You know, I can never find anything suitable in the stores. Perhaps, my figure is not standard and the size is never regular. If you like we can call in at the tailor's this afternoon?
William: Right! I'm on.
(At the tailor's)
Tailor: Good afternoon, gentlemen, are you being attended to?
William: No, I just want to look at patterns of cloth, I'm wanting a new suit — a tweed, I think; rather heavy, it's for sports wear.
Tailor: Certainly, sir; we have some very good new tweed suitings in brown and grey.
Wi 11iam: I had thought of brown.
Tailor: Very good, sir. Will you just look through this book of patterns?
Charles: I am in a hurry for my suit — I'm going away tomorrow. Have you good ready-made suits?
Tailor: Yes, sir, we have a fine range in ready-to-wear clothes; we can guarantee_ you a good fit. If you will kindly go into the nexy department with this assistant he will show you our stock.
William: This pattern seems about right, but you never can tell what this big check pattern looks like when it is made up. Have you the piece in stock?
Tailor: Yes, we have a roll of that cloth here; I'll just get it down and you can see it.
Will iam: Yes, I like that; will it wear well?
Tailor: You will get three or four years of good hard wear out of that.
William: Very well, you can make me a suit of that cloth.
Tailor: Will you just step into the fitting-room and the fitter will measure you?
* * *
Tailor: Now what style do you want, single-breasted or double-breasted?
William: I think double-breasted seems more fashionable at present.
Tailor: Double-breasted; very good, sir. Three buttons on the coat, outside breast pocket, and two side pockets, and inside breast pocket, I suppose?
W illiam: Yes, and a hip pocket in the trousers, and a small buttoned pocket in front for money.
Та ilor: Now about the trousers, do you like them wide?
William: Not too wide, just what is being worn at present.
Tailor: Permanent turn-ups, I suppose.
William: Oh, yes! They are usual, aren't they? Now, when can I come to be tried on?
Tailor: Let me see; today is Thursday — shall we say next Monday?
William: Very well, that will suit me all right.
William: Hi! Did you get fixed up with you suit?
Charles: Yes, they have a very good stock here. I got a suit thet might been made for me – it fits perfectly. They are sending it to me this afternoon, and I’ll wear it when I travel tomorrow. When is your fitting?
William : Monday! You are lucky, getting out of it, but ready-made suits won't fit my figure at all.
* * *
William: I have called to be fitted on for my suit.
Tailor: Oh, yes! Will you come this way, please, and I'll send for the fitter and the cutter? Here is your suit; will you try on the coat and waistcoat! How does that feel?
William: Yes, it's not bad. I think this sleeve is rather on the short side — could you lengthen it?
Tailor: Yes, it is a bit short; I’ll make it half an inch longer.
William: The coat's tight under the armpits.
Tailor: Yes. I'll let it out a little there and take it in at the waist, it is rather too full there. Apart from that, I think it is very good.
William: Does it sit well on the shoulders? I am always difficult to fit there.
Tailor: Yes, it sits quite snugly there. This is the lining we are putting in; do you like it?
William: Yes, I think that will look very well; when will you have finished?
Tailor: Can you call next Friday for a final fitting? It will be finished then, but we can see if any further alterations are needed.
William: Very good. Have a nice day then. And see you on Friday.
Tailor: Have a nice day too, sir, and thank you.
6.1 Answer the questions.
1 Why do William and Charles call in at the tailor's one afternoon? 2 What pattern does William choose for his suit? 3 What style does he want? 4 Why doesn't Charles have a suit made-to-measure? 5 William can't wear ready-to-wear clothes, can he? Why not? 6 When is William to come for the first fitting? 7 What alterations must be made? 8 Why is a final fitting necessary?
6.2 Make up a short dialogue between:
(a) a tailor and a customer who is choosing a pattern of cloth for his suit;
(b) a dressmaker and a customer who has come for the first fitting.
6.3 Points for discussion.
1 Give an imaginary account of how you decided to have an evening dress (trouser-suit, coat) made to measure.
2 Some people say that fashionable clothes are often unpractical. Do you agree with them? Prove your point.
3 Which do you prefer: ready-to-wear clothes or clothes made to measure. Why?
7 Fill in the blanks with the proper words. There is one odd word here. Use each word only once.
●arranging ●bleaching ●combs ●complex ●creating ●curly ●drying ●dyed ●hair●occupation ●present ●simple ●variety ●vogue ●wave ●wigs
Hairdressing is the custom of cutting and (1)… the hair, practised by men and women from ancient times to the (2)… Early records indicate that the ancient Assyrians wore elaborate (3)… hair styles; by contrast, the ancient Egyptians, men and women alike, shaved their heads and wore (4)… Whether ornate or (5) ..., hairdressing has been employed by nearly every society. In 400 BC some Greek women (6)… their hair; in the Roman period dying and (7)… were common. Japanese women used lacquer (a precursor of modern-day (8)… spray) to secure their elaborate coiffures. The wig has come in and gone out of (9)… throughout history.
Beginning with the crude curling iron used by women of ancient Rome in (10)… their elaborate hair styles, hairdressing came to be associated with a (11)… of technological accoutrements, ranging from simple (12)… and hairpins to hold the hair in place to complex electrical appliances for (13)… and grooming the hair and chemical processes to tint, (14) ..., curl, straighten, and condition the hair. By the 20th century, hairdressing itself and the manufacture of materials and equipment had become an (15)… and practical art of large proportions.
●among ●brand ●defining ●depressed● described ●designer ●emphasis ●expensive ●first ●graduating ●native●stylish ●took ●triumph ●wear ●win
Calvin Klein is an American fashion (1)… noted for his womenswear, menswear, cosmetics, bed and bath linens, and other designer collections.
Klein studied at the Fashion Institute of Technology in New York City and, after (2)… in 1962, went to work as an apprentice designer for a coat-and-suit manufacturer in the New York garment district. In 1968, when he opened his own company, the fashion industry was in a (3)… period, with casual hippie-style clothing and the miniskirt (4)… the range of fashions. The direction Kleim (5)…; was to provide simple, understated clothing. Though noted at (6)… for suits and coats, he gradually placed more (7)… on sportswear, particularly interchangeable separates.
He was the first designer to (8)… three consecutive Coty Awards for womenswear (1973-75) and was the youngest designer of ready-to-wear clothes ever elected to the Coty Hall of Fame (1975). Klein (9)… his design philosophy as the making of «simple, comfortable but (10)… clothes — but with nothing oveiscale or extreme». His clothes were relatively (11) ..., classic, elegant, and easy to (12) ..., and they struck a responsive chord (13)… buyers in the United States and other countries. His achievements were said to represent not only the (14)… of his particular (15)… of classical styling but also the maturation of the American fashion industry.
8 Practise the following dialogues.
1 — I would like to have these shoes repaired. As you see my heels are worn down.
— Yes, new heels are to be put on.
— Will you repair the shoes while I wait?
— I'm very busy now. You can pick up your shoes tomorrow.
— At what time?
— Any time.
— How much will it cost?
— $6. What's your name, please?
— All right. Here's your sales slip. You'll pay tomorrow when getting the shoes.
— Thank you.
2 — Do you do alternations?
— Yes, we do.
— I'd like to have these pants shortened.
— All right. How many inches?
— Not more than two.
— Would you try the pants on? I'd like to see them on you. Our fitting room is to the left.
— Okay. Just a minute.
— When can I pick up my pants?
— They will be ready on Monday.
3 — Good morning. May I help you?
— Yes. I'd like to have this film developed and printed.
— Okay. Anything else?
— Please, give rne two films for this camera.
— Here you are. 4 dollars and 35 cents.
— When will my pictures be ready?
— It will take us five days. Here's your receipt.
9 Learn the following dialogue.
THE DRY CLEANER'S AND THE LAUNDERETTE
Jane: We ought to go to the cleaner's first.
Sheila: No, we ought to go to the launderette first, oughtn't we? It's nearer. We don't want to waste time.
J.: Yes, you are right but it's usually very crowded, isn't it?
S.: Yes, but there must be at least 2 empty machines. Here's the launderette.
J.: The machines that are next to the dryer are empty, aren't they?
S.: No, those are full. These two are empty. Now remember. You mustn't use too much soap and you mustn't put bleach in with the coloured clothes.
J.: Yes, I know. You sound the same as Mum.
S.: Sorry. I think I ought to go to the cleaner's now. We haven't got much time.
J .: Yes, you are right. We oughtn't to waste time.
S.: Is it possible to have this dress cleaned by this afternoon?
Lady: Yes, madam.
S.: Is it possible to have my suit done, too? There are a few spots on the jacket.
L.: No, we can't do the suit by this afternoon. Can you collect it tomorrow morning?
S.: Yes, I can.
10 Explain in English the meaning of the following words.
Express shoe-repairer's, a camera, the barber, shaving lotion, permanent wave, a self-service laundry, to take one's measurements, a floor polisher, a spray, a rental office, a good offices bureau.
11 What will you do if:
1 you need some photoes to renew your passport;
2 your hair looks untidy;
3 your dress fits you badly but still you want to wear it;
4 Your soles are coming off;
5 Ypur watch glass has got cracked;
6 Your watch is fast;
7 YourI have some butter stains on my new jacket;
8 you've taken some snapshots but I have no timeprint them;
9 you coat is creased;
10 you hair seems too straight for me;
11 your soles are worn through;
12 the sleeves of your jacket are frayed;
13 your coat button has come off.
12 Read the following text and choose the correct alternatives.
HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY
George Eastman, a Rochester bank clerk, became (1) interested/ interesting in photography in the late 1870s. He spent three years developing a dry-plate process for photography, an enormous (2) enlargement/ improvement over the messy, unwieldy wet-plate method used (3) in/ at the time. After obtaining patents for the process and for a machine to (4) produce/ use large numbers of the plates, he formed the Eastman Dry Plate Company in 1881. Three years later, Eastman (5) introducted/ introduced a new film system using paper coated with gelatin and wound on a roll. With roll holders (6) adopted/ adaptable to most existing plate cameras, the system was an immediate success. In 1884 the company (7) changed/ exchanged its name to Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company.
In 1888 the company (8) discharged/ launched the first easily portable camera, priced at $25 and holding enough rolled film for 100 exposures. To (9) develop/ design the film; owners sent the entire camera to Rochester, where the film was processed and new film inserted in the camera. Eastman called it the Kodak camera, (10) inventing/ discovering the name by trying combinations of letters starting and ending with K, which he considered «a strong, incisive sort of letter». The company advertised the camera with the slogan «You (11) push/ pull the button, we do the rest.» With its small size and (12) ease/ easy of use, the Kodak camera introduced a revolution in photography, helping to open the hobby to masses of (13) am ateur/ professional photographers.
13 Read the following anecdote and reproduce it in the form of a dialogue.
I took my coat to the cleaner's. A pretty shop assistant with a charming smile said:
— We don't do light-coloured clothes express service.
— Do it ordinary then.
— You haven't taken the buttons off.
— Do you happen to have a pair of scissors or a razor?
The smile did not leave her face. When I returned her smile was even more radiant.
— There's a red wine stain. We can't take it with this.
I removed the stain at home with the help of my neighbour and some boiling water.
At the cleaner's the smile beamed as before.
— Is this a grease stain? Sun-flower oil? Butter? Name the type of fat that has be removed.
I returned home once again, but I was unable to establish what kind of fat it was. I simply removed the stain with petrol.
This time it seemed to me that she was smiling even more pleasantly.
— Please, step out of my light. That seemed to be a blood stain. Did you bring a blood test certificate?
— What certificate?
— From the police, from the laboratory; a certificate saying that your blood is the same.
— The same as what blood?
— The same as the blood on your coat.
— Do you imagine I've killed somebody?
The shop-assistant continued to smile. It was necessary to make another journey. At home I washed the coat with the help of the same neighbour.
— Not everything is all right, — the shop-assistant smiled at me for the last time. — But why are you giving me a perfectly clean coat?
My neighbour sewed on the buttons for me.
14 Use the words from the list to complete the following text.
Do It Yourself
So great is our 1)… for doing things for ourselves, that we ar becoming increasingly less dependent on 2)… labour. No one can plead ignorance of a subject any longer, for there are 3)… do-it-yourself publications. 4)… the right tools and materials, newly-weds gaily 5)… the task of decorating their own homes. Men of all ages spend hours of their leisure time 6)… their own fireplaces, 7)… their own gardens; building garages and 8)… furniture. Some really 9)… enthusiasts go so far as to build their own record players and radio transmitters. Shops 10)… the do-it-yourself craze not only by running special advisory services for 11) ..., but by offering consumers bits and pieces which they can 12)… at home.
Wives tend to believe that their husbands are infinitely resourceful and 13)… Even husbands who can hardly 14)… a nail in straight are supposed to be born electricians, carpenters, plumbers and mechanics. When lights 15) ..., furniture 16) ..., pipes get 17) ..., or vacuum cleaners fail to operate, wives automatically assume that their husbands will somehow put things 18)… The worst thing about the do-it-yourself 19)… is that sometimes husbands live under the 20)… that they can do anything even when they have been repeatedly proved wrong. It is a question of pride as much as anything else.
14 . 1 Answer the questions.
1 Why are we less dependent on specialized labour nowadays? 2 Why can no one plead ignorance of a subject any longer? 3 What things can people do for themselves armed with the right tools and materials? 4 How do shops cater for the do-it-yourself craze? 5 What do wives tend to believe about their husbands? 6 What is the worst thing about the do-it-yourself game?
14.2 Prove that do-it-yourself publications are really of great help.
15 Read and discuss the text.
THE CHANGING PATTERN OF OUR LIFE
Sometimes when we switch on our automatic washing machine or vacuum cleaner we think of the days when all the household chores took hours and hours to do.
Much preparatory work had been done on the washday, for example, as there was no mains water and no gas heater.
When I think of the washdays of my grandmother’s childhood in the 1920's, I see long lines of white-starched clothes, bright gingham and baby clothes, flapping in the breeze on lines stretched between the apple trees; and rows of towels, tea towels and other small articles lying on the green grass to bleach in the summer sunshine. The rain water was collected from the roof of our farmhouse into a tall barrel and transferred to the washing boiler. This was often a Saturday afternoon task for my father as it needed someone tall and strong to bucket the water from one to the other.
On Mondays at 7.30 a.m. the fire got going under the boiler and in about half an hour the washing began.
The new electric appliances have changed the pattern of our home life completely: the washing, cleaning and cooking take much less time.
Now the daily routine is constantly changing due to the fact that more labour-saving devices have been introduced into our lives.
But the new gadgets have made the household work more sophisticated. One should know how to use all these electric appliances, how to make them work so that they don't break very often and don't give us much trouble. What things must we get first? An electric toaster, a vacuum cleaner, a refrigerator or a washing machine? And how shall we make use of our leisure time now that we have more and more free time on our hands.
15.1 Answer the questions.
1 Did it take much time to do the washing in the country in the 1920's? Why? 2 How much time does it take you to do the washing now? 3 What labour-saving devices have been introduced into our lives? 4 How much time does it take you to do the rooms? 5 Why have the new gadgets made the household work more sophisticated?
16 Read and translate the text. Explain the meaning of the phrasal verbs in italics.
TO END UP WITH
Everything seems to be gaining up these days. Prices are going up and that makes the cost of living go up. The people whose wages and salaries go up are fortunate: they can manage, perhaps, to keep up with rising costs.
Populations are going up too, and if the world becomes overcrowded there may be more wars. Then, if the atomic bombs drop, everything will go up in smoke and dust, and it will be all up with the civilization. We must not give up hope, however. Let us cheer up and not look only on the dark side. Even though troubles pile up, good fortune will turn up occasionally. Servants may leave, so that we have to wash up after our meals, but we may still, when the work is done, be able to put our feet up for a few minutes. We may, when we go out in the car, find the roads up or so bad that our tires go flat and have to be plumped up. Yet, when we get home, we may, perhaps, enjoy, if you sit up late, a wonderful broadcast of Opera from Milan or Rome. Things do look up sometimes. Life is full of ups and downs. We may feel depressed and fed up now but good luck will turn up again soon. So, once again cheer up !
16.1 Rewrite the following sentences substituting the phrasal verbs in italics with the verbs similar in meaning:
1 He rang his wife up .
2 He drew up his will.
3 He put up a garden shed.
4 He turned up his radio.
5 He got his papers mixed up .
6 She brought up her children.
7 She cleared up her bedroom.
8 She liked to make up children’s stories.
9 He looked the word up in the dictionary.
17 In pairs, discuss which of the devices and electric appliances in the puctures:
· is the most useful
· saves the most time
· wastes the most time
· is largely a waste of money
· you would choose if you could only have one of them.
Silver & black colour flat screen TV with virtual Dolby surround sound. 107cm visible screen size. HD ready. Auto install. Digital tuner. Sleep timer. Wall mountable. Resolution 1024x768 pixels. 2 SCART sockets. 2 HDMI inputs. H74.8xW124.9xD30.6cm.
Suits every décor of the room!!! Manufacturer’s 5 year warranty.
Brushed stainless steel 15 bar pressure cappuccino & espresso maker. 1.3L water tank. 20 cup capacity. Variable coffee strength. Milk frother.Forget the problems with making coffee in the morning! Buy cappuccino & espresso maker. Manufacturer’s 3 year warranty.
Packed with time saving features — from the easy-to-attach 3 Litre 'drop-on' processing bowl and 1.5L blender — to the handy in-bowl storage unit for the attachments, everything about Odacio DFC344 has been designed to make it a joy to use. Complete with a citrus press and blades for slicing, shredding and chopping, a metal whisk and a dough tool, you'll wonder how you ever lived without the Odacio. Make cleaning more simple.
Wine cooling fridge with power indicator. Holds approx. 12 wine bottles. Wine not included. H49.9xW36xD56.7cm. Take it to your cottage-house or to the country. Easy to carryЮ
The tastiest and creative way to steam a complete meal in one go. The VitaCuisine cooks 3 in 1 — fish, meat, veg or dessert without transferring the flavours and has a large fish basket with built in non-stick reversible sauce tray. The steamer has a Vitamin Plus booster button to allow faster cooking & retain 50% more vitamins. The natural steaming drains juices into the outer collector rim for added benefit. All baskets are stainless steel so easy to clean.
Electrical knife. Safe and easy way to cut different kinds of food without making any harm to yourself.
Tube Canopy will help you to make your skin shine with chocolate tinge. It has 28 ultra-modern lamps and a delay start timer. It is the last model of Phillips tube canopy which has the best safety. Manufacturer’s 10 year warranty.
The GHD salon styler straightener has ceramic plates that protect your hair from the heat, locks in the moisture and effectively helps to tame frizzy, curly hair. The built in on/off indicator lets you know when the straightening iron is heated and ready for use. A cool tip helps to protect you at all times from the heat.
Steam Generator Ironing.2kW, 1000ml capacity white steam generator iron with stainless steel plate. Anti-scale system. 70g shot of steam. Variable & vertical steam.
Home Phone. Redial list up to 10 numbers. Access contact list from the handset. Up to 8hrs talk time & 100hrs standby. Includes CD to register your Tesco internet phone account & £5 of call time. Requires broadband internet connection & PC with Windows 98 2nd edition or above.
Hairdryier. A 2000w diffuser dryer with 2 heat/speed settings. The concentrator helps guide the airflow for smooth finishes and the diffuser creates volume and gives body to flyaway hair. Manufacturer’s 10 year warranty.
The LG steam washing machine is the first of its kind with ‘steam direct drive’ technology that saves up to 35% water and uses 21% less energy than most other machines of its class. For those of you that hate ironing, the innovative steam programme continuously sprays steam and gently rotates the drum to effectively remove creases and odours from the fabric between washes.
LG has eliminated the belt, pulley and carbon brushes and attached the motor directly to the drum, making the motor system more reliable and reducing both noise and vibrations. This machine has a large 8kg capacity drum to allow you to wash bigger loads and bulkier items at one go.
The LG steam washing machine has 9 different washing programmes, variable temperature control, variable spin and hot and cold fill. It also includes options for quick wash, hand wash and wool wash. Some other useful features include LCD display, delay start timer and time remaining indicator. Manufacturer’s 10 year warranty.
Canon calls all of its desktop ink jet printers photo printers, but most them are good choices as all-purpose printers for text and graphics as well, even if you rarely print a photo. The Canon Pixma iP6600D Photo Printer is a photo printer in a more classic sence. It can function fir text and graphics. When it comes to photos, the printer shines with excellent speed, high-quality output, and an assortment for features specifically designed to make photos easy to print.
Canera. It is unnecessary thing for traveling. Images which can be viewed at a larger size have a small magnifying glass icon in the bottom right corner of the image, clicking on the image will display a larger (typically VGA) image in a new window.
Laptop. It has excellent graphics, wireless is fabulous, DVD/CD burner, the processor is great. It is extremely easy to set up and use. Manufacturer’s 10 year warranty.
18 Read and discuss the text.
Should Men Be Able to Cook and Women to Use Тоо ls?
My uncle James was a good cook, and he married a woman who was another. The result, I am told,, was that the early days of their marriage were not always harmonious: my uncle was always wanting to interfere in the kitchen, while my aunt was always driving him away. Certainly it is generally assumed that cooking is the housewife's job; look at the television advertisements for evidence of this. One sees a man sitting hungrily and expectantly at table, while his wife, dressed in a frilly apron and unpractical shoes, bustles to and from the cooking stove, and finally sets before her husband a dish which ensures his adoration for ever. Ought he to have had a hand in that cooking? Many people will reply, «Certainly not!»
Yet a little thought will tell us how wrong it is that a man should be quite helpless in the kitchen. A married friend of mine often says jocularly that he can make a cup of tea, and can boil an egg, but that he gets muddled if he has to do them both at the same time. Probably exaggerates a little, but he certainly expresses the plight of thousands of men who are quite at at a loss as soon as the woman of the house absent, or confined to bed? Such men must immediately seek the services of a neighbour or a female relative. Is it not rather unmanly to be so miserably dependent? Surely a man should have enough .cooking ability to supply, at the very least, his own needs — preferably those of his wife also, when she is ill. If he has not learned to cook in his boyhood, he should take up cooking as soon as he gets married, asking his wife to give him some lessons.
Now for a woman’s learning to use tools. There are times when her being unable to handle a screwdriver can cause as much trouble as'a man's being unable to boil an egg. The lonely woman, or the woman living in a manless household, is often at a great disadvantage when a fuse burns out, a door handle comes off, a tap leaks, or a wash basin refuses to empty freely. Sometimes she does not even know what must be done; often, when she does know, she finds that the screwdriver or the wrench fails to obey her hands, or that she has bought the wrong washer or the wrong fuse wire. She is forced to call in a plumber or an electrician, who is delighted to come to her aid, to have a long chat afterwards over a cup of tea, and to send in a bill which transforms a sixpenny job into a two-pound one. 'At such a time a woman may well reflect that a short course of training in the use of tools would have saved her time, her money, and her temper.
18.1 Two questions are asked in the title. Neither of them is answered fully in the article but it is clear what the writer has in mind. Give a discussion held by three people of different ages and occupations on the subject.
18.2 Give an account of an occasion when you were obliged to fix the electric iron yourself.
19 Questions on the topic:
1 For what purpose is electricity used in the home?
2 What labour-saving devices have you got at home and why did you buy them?
3 Are labour-saving machines and gadgets really such a blessing as we claim them to be?
4 Have you ever had a bad experience with any household appliance?
5 Does your father (brother) fix electric devices himself or do you have to take them to a repair shop?
6 What Personal Service Establishments are there in your town and what service do they give?
7 Can you imagine your life without everyday services? Why not?
8 What have you observed to be the advantages of the laundry service and what faults do you find with it?
9 What can you say about shoemaker's shops in your area? Do they ever fall behind with orders?
10 How long does it take the dry cleaner's to clean a suit? How long does the Special Service take?
11 Are you good at photography? Is it your hobby?
12 Do you have your hair set regularly? Where do you have it done?
20 Talking points:
1 Everyday services have given us the possibility to be less busy about the house.
2 Women's work is never done. As soon as one job is finished there is another waiting to be done.
3 Housekeeping is much easier than it used to be. Times have changed.
4 Nowadays we don't think what a blessing electricity is. We take it for granted.
5 «Electric appliances don't save labour, they make labour.» Do you agree with this statement?
6 «Yesterda у 's luxury is today's necessity.» Are you of the same opinion?
7 Ready-to wear clothes are often mass-produced. What may be the drawback of this.
8 The advantaged of tailor-made clothes.
21 Read and translate the text.
SERVICE INDUSTRIES IN BRITAIN
Service industries in Britain comprise: 1) national and local government; 2) defense; 3) educational services; 4) health services; 5) transport and communications; 6) distribution services; 7) services provided by financial institutions; 8) business services: advertising, exhibition and conference centers, computer service, auction houses, land and estate companies, type-writing, duplicating, document-copying, translating and employment agencies; 9) miscellaneous services: film and TV, hotels and catering, garages, petrol stations, motor-repairing and distributive trades, hairdressing and manicuring, laundries and laundromats, dry cleaning, window cleaning, shoe-repairing and antique-dealing, funeral service.
There has been a steady rise in the proportion of total output contributed by the service industries in Britain and in the proportion of employers working in the service sector. In 2001 services contributed about 72 per cent of gross domestic product compared with some 60 per cent in 1980 and 50 per cent in 1960. There has also been an increase in service activities carried out within the productive sector. The proportion of administrative, technical and clerical workers employed in manufacturing, for instance, rose from 30 per cent in 1992 to 36 per cent in 2001. It is probable that this represents a growing contribution of management, design, research and development, computing, marketing and distribution skills. The increase in service activity has been accompanied by a rise in the proportion of women in the working population, women tending to find employment more readily in service activities than in production. In June 2001 the number of women in employment was 0,7 mln higher than ten years earlier while the number of males was 1,6 mln lower.
The main growth sector since the 1970-ies has been financial and business services, followed by public health and educational services, public administration and communication. The contribution of the distributive trades to gross domestic product has changed little and that of transport has declined. The rising contribution of the publicly provided health and education services results in part from the recognition that investment in human resources is of increasing importance to an industrialized society in an era of technological advance. Within miscellaneous services growth (measured by employment) has occurred chiefly in hotels and catering, services associated with leisure activities, motorcar services and distribution.
One detectable trend in recent decades is that consumers have changed certain services (such as public transport, laundry and cinema) for rented or purchased goods such as motorcar washing machines and TV-sets with which they can provide services for themselves. In turn, demand for distribution, maintenance and repair of such goods has generated fresh service activities. Increased consumer expenditure on the running costs of motor-vehicles has contributed significantly to the rise in consumer expenditure on services from 40 per cent of total consumer expenditure in 1990 to 38 per cent in 2000.
In general, technological innovation, particularly electronics, is combined with increased consumer spending to make possible the provision of new and improved services, ranging from electronic accounting to the expansion of information systems, such as view-date and the renting of electronic entertainment goods such as video-cassette-recorders.
· How can you characterize in general the system of service industries in Britain?
· How can you explain the steady rise in the development of service industries in Britain during the previous decade?
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