Курсовая работа: How Employee Attitudes And Morale Affect Productivity
? Essay, Research Paper
There are many factors that can affect an employee s attitudes in the work environment. In this report we are going to cover most of the common factors that can help employees prepare themselves when an actual situation arises. We are also likely to cover how we as the managers can help motivate the employees to there fullest potential. We will also be covering certain areas that employees should look out for when choosing their profession. One key aspect that we will cover is how to deal with different types of personalities and what you should look for so you don t fall in their trap.
In order to be successful in constructing a plan you should pick staff members with sufficient skills and knowledge for the job. Don’t give staff members work just to keep them busy. Complainers can spread negativity through the workplace like a contagious disease and infect even the most optimistic and productive employees. When management calls a meeting about an issue that will affect employees, the entire plant attends. Employees at all levels participate in committees to discuss improvements, bottlenecks, safety and other workplace issues. When people screaming, yelling and demanding somebody s head surround you, do nothing. When an employee makes a complaint, counter with a positive observation. That might cause the complainer to stop and think. When people expect you to agree with them or rescue them, ask: “What are you going to do about it?” When you start looking for someone to blame, ask yourself: Once I find out that’s to blame, what will I do next? What will I gain by punishing someone for this? Is thinking this way to my advantage? If you aren’t satisfied with your answers, ask: How else could I look at this situation? What can I learn here? When you hear yourself complaining or blaming, ask: Why am I saying this? What is my goal here? What effect will this comment have on the people listening to me? What kind of reaction do I expect? Do I want them to agree with me or rescue me? What am I trying to accomplish? Interactions between employers and employees and their attitudes toward one another.
Here are couple theories that can help the employees working attitudes:
Classical Theory of Motivation – Theory holding that workers are motivated solely by money.
Two-Factor Theory – Theory of motivation holding that job satisfaction depends on two types of factors: hygiene and motivation.
Expectancy Theory – Theory of motivation holding that people are motivated to work toward rewards that they want and which they believe they have a reasonable chance of obtaining.
Equity Theory – Theory of motivation holding that people evaluate their treatment by employers relative to the treatment of others.
Goal-Setting Theory – Theory of motivation holding that people are best motivated when they participate in setting their own moderately difficult specific goals.
Here are a few tips that you can follow if you have encounter any blocks to employees productivity:
1. Improper selection: When labor markets are tight, companies may be tempted to hire anyone with a warm body and a pulse to fill a slot rather than pay an adequate amount of money to recruit the right individual. No matter how tight a labor market is, there are always qualified people available if the compensation is fair. If you are baking a cake and you use the wrong ingredients, no matter what the reason, you will not produce the cake you desire.
2. Inadequate training: One out of three employees change jobs annually. Companies that recruit poorly tend to train poorly as well. Training is not a one-shot enterprise; it is an ongoing investment to reinforce and advance skills and attitudes. Employers often get caught up in a vicious circle. They recruit poorly, and then fail to allocate sufficient training resources. They figure, why spend the money on training when the employee won’t be around for very long? Employees’ performance suffers, their satisfaction levels are low, and they leave their positions, giving their employers the opportunity to start the cycle again. Employers ought to treat employees as an investment rather than an expense.
3. Overworking staff: Reasonable people will accomplish a reasonable amount in a reasonable time period. But you cannot put 10 quarts of water into a five-quart container. There is nothing wrong with shifting work from former employees to those who remain. Our capacity to produce will sometimes be enhanced as we take on more responsibilities. But there is a limit. Being truly overworked helps people do a lot of things poorly. It may be more productive to ask staff to accomplish fewer things effectively.
4. Poor alignment with personal and company goals: The employer has a life and a destination, and so do employees. If employees cannot align their goals with those of their employers, they will eventually seek greener pastures. Do your employees see their positions as vehicles to get them to where they want to go in life financially, professionally and socially? Or are their jobs an expedient tradeoff of their time for a pay cheque?
5. Burnout: Most people leave their jobs voluntarily, and the major reason is “burnout.” “Fed up! Can’t take it anymore!” Unfortunately, burnout is not an overnight event but a gradual process, sometimes lasting months and years. During that time, productivity and commitment diminish. Burnout is caused in different ways but has a lot to do with the items mentioned above. Many employers fail to look for signs of burnout. If they are not cognizant of the problem, there will be no opportunity to prevent, respond to or rectify the situation. Why is childcare important to employers? National surveys on employers perceptions of the benefits of child care programs report increased productivity, improved recruitment and retention and lower stress levels as motivations for child care assistance. Workers are more likely to be more productive and satisfied on the job when they work in jobs that support their individual and family needs, according to a new study entitled, The 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce by the nonprofit Families and Work Institute. Employer childcare assistance includes dependent care assistance plans, direct subsidies and vouchers, arranging employee discounts at day care centers, flexible schedules.
An employer s response to the childcare needs of its employees depend on the companies size, industry, location and economic condition. Employers need a decision-making mechanism to determine the best course of action for their companies.
Here are a few pointers that managers can do in order to help change the employees attitude in the work place:
A Milestone in Motivation
People employed in your business bring their own unique motivational sources to the workplace. Does this mean the onus of motivation falls alone on the employee? The Quality of Motivation Theory, according to Dr. Charles Coker, President of Life Thrive Performance Systems, says no. If the employee feels the demands of the job are greater than the available individual or business resources, the individual (and the business) will demonstrate a lack of commitment and loss of energy. The QM theory provides an empirical answer to the nagging question, how do I motivate my employees? The answer lies in your business values, policies, direction, actions, and strategies. It is therefore crucial for businesses positioning themselves as thriving businesses to select and develop employees who will become profitable, motivated, and highly skilled at providing value-added services. The business must engage the emotional energy and attention of the employees and provide the resources to help them cope with the emotional, intellectual, and physical demands of the job.
How do you develop a business culture that is attracts and retains highly motivated employees?
Employment security. The vast majority of society today longs for security and stability. Time and time again job stability ranks far higher than pay on job satisfaction scales. People naturally resist change because it is simply too difficult or disruptive. Employment security, based on successful job performance, is a key factor in a successful business.
Hire selectively. Surround yourself with people who share your fundamental values for a quality of life. Owners and managers can no longer hire by guessing, hoping, relying on gut reaction or believing a resume. The costs are too high and the results too threatening for the long-term success and profitability of a business. Managers must hire and train with special emphasis on top-notch verbal and listening skills, interpersonal effectiveness, willingness to cooperate, individual initiative, and willingness to contribute. High performance employees will display good initiative, judgment, adaptability, and ability to learn as well as a willingness to share what they know for the benefit of the customer.
Rethink your compensation structure. Businesses must begin to offer compensation based on organizational performance as well as individual performance. This requires measurement. To know if the business and individuals within it have improved, employees must have a reference point, clear expectations, be given feedback and direction, and receive training and support to meet business goals and satisfy personal needs.
Provide training beyond clinical skills. A recent Stanford University study showed that 88% of successful performance is a direct result of attitude and an individual s motivation. Only 12% of successful performance could be credited to skills or technical knowledge. Developing employees “soft skills” has a far greater likelihood of success and a higher return on investment. As an added bonus, a motivated person is more likely to take the initiative to learn and acquire new technical skills needed to grow and advance.
Learn to use the ideas, skills and efforts of all people. An environment that encourages the sharing of information and flexibility will find new ways to solve problems, more quickly and effectively than the business down the street.
Finally, promote your employees as your competitive edge. Believe as Douglas Ivester, CEO of Coca-Cola, one of the most successful companies in the world, does “People are your most defining asset.”
Here are some managerial styles that you can follow in order to be successful:
Leadership Process of motivating others to work to meet specific objectives.
Managerial Styles Patterns of behavior that a manager exhibits in dealing with subordinates.
Autocratic Style Managers generally issue orders and expect them to be obeyed without question.
Democratic styles Managers generally ask for input from subordinates but retain final decision-making power.
Free-rein style Managers typically serve as advisors to subordinates who are allowed to make decisions.
a) The Contingency Approach to Leadership The appropriate behavior in any situation is dependent (contingent) on the unique elements of that situation.
b) Motivation and Leadership in the 1900s Today s employees want rewards that are often very much different from those that earlier generations desired. Money is no longer the prime motivator for most people.
Below are three main factors that can really affect the workers attitude and behavior in the work place:
I. HUMAN RELATIONS IN THE WORKPLACE
Human relations – Interactions between employers and employees and their attitudes toward one another.
A. The Importance of Satisfaction and Morale Job Satisfaction – Degree of enjoyment that people derive from performing their jobs.
Morale – Overall attitude that employee have toward their workplace.
B. Recent Trends in Managing Satisfaction and Morale – U.S. workers now feel less secure in their jobs than they did just a few years ago.
II. MOTIVATION IN THE WORKPLACE
Motivation – The set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways.
A. Classical Theory and Scientific Management
Classical Theory of Motivation – Theory holding that workers are motivated solely by money.
Scientific Management – Theory of management that uses scientific analysis of individual jobs to increase productivity and efficiency.
B. Behavior Theory:
The Hawthorne Studies – The study to examine the relationship between changes in the physical environment and worker output.
Hawthorne Effect – Tendency for productivity to increase when workers believe they are receiving special attention from management.
C. Contemporary Motivational Theories – The tendency is to focus more attention on the importance of good human relations in motivating employee performance.
1. Human-Resources Model: Theories X and Y
Theory X – Theory of motivation holding that people are naturally irresponsible and uncooperative.
Theory Y – Theory of motivation holding that people are naturally responsible and growth-oriented, self-motivated, and interested in being productive.
2. Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs Model – Theory of motivation describing five levels of human needs and arguing that basic needs must be fulfilled before people work to satisfy higher-level needs.
3. Two-Factor Theory – Theory of motivation holding that job satisfaction depends on two types of factors: hygiene and motivation.
4. Expectancy Theory – Theory of motivation holding that people are motivated to work toward rewards which they want and which they believe they have a reasonable chance of obtaining.
5. Equity Theory – Theory of motivation holding that people evaluate their treatment by employers relative to the treatment of others.
6. Goal-Setting Theory – Theory of motivation holding that people are best motivated when they participate in setting their own moderately difficult specific goals.
III. STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCING JOB SATISFACTION AND MOTIVATION
A. Reinforcement/Behavior Modification Theory – Behavior can be encouraged or discouraged by means of rewards or punishments, respectively.
B. Management by Objectives (MBO) – Set of procedures involving both managers and subordinates in setting goals and evaluating progress.
C. Participative Management and Empowerment – Method of increasing job satisfaction by giving employees a voice in the management of their jobs and the company.
Team Management – When employees are being consulted on decisions like production scheduling, work procedures and schedules, and the hiring of new employees.
D. Job Enrichment and Job Redesign
1. Job-Enrichment Programs – Method of increasing job satisfaction by adding one or more motivating factors to job activities.
2. Job-Redesign Programs – Method of increasing job satisfaction by designing a more satisfactory fit between workers and their jobs.
a. Combining Tasks – Enlarging jobs and increasing their variety to make employees feel that their work is more meaningful than before.
b. Forming Natural Work Groups – These groups are formed to help employees see the place and importance of their jobs in the total structure of the firm.
c. Establishing Client Relationships – Greater employee interaction with customers, thus greater job variety and control.
E. Modified Work Schedules – Different approaches to working hours and the workweek.
Work-Share Programs – Methods of increasing job satisfaction by allowing two or more people to share a single full-time job.
F. Flextime Programs and Alternative Workplace Strategies
Flextime Programs – Methods of increasing job satisfaction by allowing workers to adjust work schedules on a daily or weekly basis.
Telecommuting and Virtual Offices – Form of flextime that allows people to perform some or all of a job away from standard office settings.
In conclusion we have covered most the factors that can affect an employee s attitudes in the work environment. We also covered how we as the managers can help motivate the employees to there fullest potential. The key aspect that we have cover was how to deal with different types of personalities and what you should look for so you don t fall in their trap. We hope that all the advice we have suggested was a helpful tactics to your company.