Курсовая работа: The way of life of americans. Features of character of americans

Курсова робота

The way of life of americans. Features of character of americans



Part I. The way of life of Americans

1.1. American national character in popular culture

1.2. Urban life of Americans.

1.3. Rural life of Americans and their character

1.4. Language

1.5. Religion if Americans

1.6. Work and jobs

1.7. Recreation

1.8. Health and income

1.9. Food

Part II. Features of character of Americans

2.1. Trust and hope of Americans on God

2.2. Love pf Americans to their native country

2.3. “Americans are vitally concerned in their defense of freedom”

2.4. The other features of character


Bibliography list


United staffs of Comerica is the third – largest country in the world in population and if is the fourth – largest country in arid. The United staffs is a land of gnat beauty and natural wealth its people enjoy one of the world’s highest standards of living.

The United states today has one of the world’s most varied populations. At has been called “a nation of immigrants”. The Americans – as the people are commonly called – also made major contra but ions in such fields as technology, science, and medicine.

The American way of life is an expression that refers to the «lifestyle» of people living in the United States. It is an example of a behavioral modality, developed during the 20th century. It refers to an nationalist ethos that purports to adhere to principles of «life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.» It has some connection to the concept of American exceptionalism.

During the time of the Cold War, the expression was commonly used by the media to highlight the differences in living standards of the populations of the United States and Russia. At that time, American popular culture broadly embraced the idea that anyone, regardless of the circumstances of his or her birth, could significantly increase his or her standard of living through determination, hard work, and natural ability. In the employment sector, this concept was expressed in the belief that a competitive market would foster individual talent and a renewed interest in entrepreneurship. Politically, it took the form of a belief in the superiority of a free democracy, founded on a productive and economic expansion without limits.

Today, the expression has again become pervasive in popular culture, in part because of its use by President George H. W. Bush, who has stated that «the 'way of life1 of the Americans is not negotiable.» The expression has come to be associated with over-consumption, exploitation of natural resources, American exceptionalism, and other negative aspects of American culture, and it has negative connotations in many parts of the world.

In the National Archives and Records Administration's 1999 Annual Report, National Archivist John W. Carlin writes, «We are different because our government and our way of life are not based on the divine right of kings, the hereditary privileges of elites, or the enforcement of deference to dictators. They are based on pieces of paper, the Charters of Freedom — the Declaration that asserted our independence, the Constitution that created our government, and the Bill of Rights that established our liberties.»

American way of life is an expression that one finds in all the main documents of American history. Let us see the use by the Americans themselves of this terminology: executive Order 10631 Eisenhower August 17, 1955

Code of Conduct for Members of the United States Armed Forces: 1) Iam an American fighting in the forces which guard my country and our way of life. I am prepared to give my life in their defense.

In 1998: Powerful Documents Inspire a Nation By Senator Trent Lott:

«When the first shots of the Revolutionary War were fired, it signaled one of the most significant changes in the human history. „The shot heard 'round the world“ started a struggle for independence not just from England, but from despotism. Our Founding Fathers were literally the first people in history to fight and die for their naturally-given right to self-determination. When those out-manned revolutionaries beat the English, a bold new way of life was born.»

ethnographic and wildlife Alaska from the early 1920s:

«This extraordinary collection was selected for this preservation project because it is well organized, identified, documented, and published Photographically, the images are beautifully composed, are in sharp focus, and have been well exposed. As American history, this collection is an important contribution to the chronicle of the time and region, its wildlife and native populations These photographs document a people and a way of life on the brink of change just prior to the modern era. We can see a way of life that changed quickly and completely when the radio made possible rapid communication and the airplane became a common means of transportation across such vast distances. Bailey's keen observations led to an outstanding archive of cultural information. His unique visual and documentary record is essential as it comes at a time when the traditional economies and belief system were beginning to change to heavy reliance on objects and behaviors brought about by schools, tourists, the military, and oil field developers ».

I. The way of life of Americans

1.1. American national character in popular culture

«The culture of the United States is a Western culture, and has been developing since long before the United States became a country. Its chief early influence was British culture, due to colonial ties with the British that spread the English language, legal system and other cultural inheritances. Other important influences came from other parts of Europe, especially countries from which large numbers immigrated such as Ireland, Germany, Poland, and Italy; the Native American peoples; Africa, especially the western part, from which came the ancestors of most African Americans; and young groups of immigrants. American culture also has shared influence on the cultures of its neighbors in the New World.

The United States has traditionally been known as a melting pot, but recent academic opinion is tending towards cultural diversity, pluralism and the image of a salad bowl rather than a melting pot.

Due to the extent of American culture there are many integrated but unique subcultures within the United States. The culutral affliations an individual in the United States may have commonly depend on social class, political orientation and a multitude of demogrpahic charateristics such as race, ethnicity, sex and sexual orientation. The strongest influences on American culture came from northern European cultures, most prominently from Germany, Ireland and England. [2] It is, however, paramount to remember that there are great differences within American culutre which should therefore under no circumstance be seen as one large homogenous subject.

The American state of California (especially the Hollywood region) is home to a thriving motion picture industry, with prominent film studios such as Warner Brothers, Paramount, and MGM creating dozens of multi-million dollar films every year that are enjoyed around the world. American actors are often among the world's most popular and easily identified celebrities. It's worth noting that Hollywood also tends to attract many immigrant actors and directors from around the world, many of whom, such as actor Russell Crowe or director Ang Lee become just as famous and successful as American-born stars.

The United States was a leading pioneer of T.V. as an entertainment medium, and the tradition remains strong to this day. Many American television sitcoms dramas game shows and reality shows remain very popular both in the US and abroad. Animation is a popular US entertainment medium as well, both on the largeand small screen. The characters created by Walt Disney and Warner Brothers animation studios remain very popular. In music, the United States has pioneered many distinct genres, such as country and western, jazz, rock music, hip hop and gospel. African-American cultural influences play a particularly prominent role in many of these traditions.

1.2. Urban life of Americans.

Urban life. Urban areas, which range from giant cities surrounded by suburbs to small towns, dot the U.S. landscape. Although the urban areas cover about 2 ½ percent of the land, they are the home of about three-fourths of the people. New York City, with about 7 mil­lion people, is the largest U.S. city by far. Los Angeles has about 3 million people. Chicago has a population of about 2¾ million. Five other U.S. cities—Houston, Phil­adelphia, San Diego, Detroit, and Dallas—each have more than 1 million people.

Networks of suburbs surround many U.S. cities. The central cities and their suburbs form units called metro­politan areas. There are about 268 metropolitan areas in the United States. The three largest are, in order of size, the New York-Newark, Los Angeles-Long Beach, and Chicago areas. The New York-Newark metropolitan area has about 17 million people, the Los Angeles-Long Beach area has more than 8¾ million people, and the Chicago area has about 7½million people.

For many years, the vast majority of the country's urban population lived in the central cities. But during the mid-1900s, suburban population soared throughout the United States, while central city growth slowed down or decreased. In 1970, for the first time, more Americans lived in suburbs than in central cities.

The Northeast and Midwest have long had most of the nation's largest urban areas. But during the 1900's, other parts of the country have experienced dramatic urban growth. Since the early 1900's, many California urban communities—especially Los Angeles—have grown tremendously. Since the mid-1900's, the popula­tions of many more urban areas in the West, and in the South and Southwest, have soared. Such metropolitan areas as Atlanta, Dallas, Denver, Houston, and Phoenix grew rapidly. Large numbers of people were attracted to the West, South, and Southwest by jobs created by new industries. Also, many of the fastest-growing communities have warm, sunny climates, which helped attract many of the newcomers. Parts of the South, Southwest, and West are sometimes called the Sun Belt because they have such climates.

Urban economies provide jobs for a great variety of workers, including office and factory workers, bankers, doctors, fire fighters, medical personnel, police officers, teachers, trash collectors, and construction and trans­portation workers. Urban life also has many other positive features. Because of their large populations, urban areas generally offer a wide variety of specialized serv­ices and shops. Urban dwellers can take advantage of an assortment of restaurants, recreation facilities, and places of entertainment. Because of such facilities as art galleries, museums, libraries, theaters, and concert halls, many cities are important cultural centers. These and other features make urban areas exciting and interesting places to live for many people.

The people of most U.S. urban areas represent a variety of ethnic backgrounds. Most cities include neighborhoods in which almost all the people belong to the sameethnic or nationality group. The people of large urban areas are also divided economically. Urban society includes extremely wealthy and extremely poor people, and a huge middle class. The wealthy live in luxurious apartments or condominiums, or in large, comfortable single-family houses. Middle-class housing also includes apartments, condominiums, and single-family houses. In general, the housing of the middle class is comfortable, though not as luxurious as that of the wealthy. In contrast, large numbers of urban poor people live in substandard housing. They rent crowded,small apartments or run-down single-family houses.'

In addition to substandard housing, urban areas have a number of other negative features. Such features in­clude high crime rates, racial and ethnic friction, noisy surroundings, pollution, and traffic jams. See City (City problems).

1.3. Rural life of Americans and their character

Rural life. More than 97 percent of all the land of the United States is classified as rural. But much of the rural land is uninhabited or only lightly inhabited. About a fourth of all Americans live in rural areas.

Farms provide the economic basis of the nation's rural areas. But only about 9 percent of the country's rural people work on farms. Many other rural people own or work in businesses related to agriculture, such as grain and feed stores and warehouses. Mining and related activities and light industries also employ many rural people. Still other rural Americans work as teach­ers, police officers, salesclerks, or in other occupations. Many farmers hold other jobs for part of the year to add to their incomes.

American farmers of today lead vastly different lives from those of their grandparents. Machines have elimi­nated much backbreaking farm work. Farmers use ma­chines to help them plow, plant seeds, harvest crops, and deliver their products to market. Many farms have conveyor systems so that the farmer no longer has to shovel feed to farm animals. Milking machines make morning and evening chores easier. In the home, farm families may have all the comforts and conveniences of city people. In the 1900’s, the automobile, telephone, radio, and television have brought U.S. farm families into close contact with the rest of the world.

The steady decline in the percentage of the country's rural population has slowed since 1970. Although manypeople continued to move away from rural areas, others chose to move into rural towns and farm communities. Many of the newcomers wanted to escape the over­crowding, pollution, crime, and other problems that are part of life in urban areas and to take advantage of bene­fits of country living. Rural areas have lower crime rates and less pollution than urban areas. They are also far less noisy and crowded.

Because of their small populations, rural communities collect less tax revenues than urban communities do, and they generally cannot provide the variety of services that urban areas can. For example, rural communities have cultural and recreational facilities that are more limited than those available in urban areas. For many rural Americans, social life centers around family gath­erings, church and school activities, special interest clubs, and such events as state and county fairs.

Rural areas generally have less diversified economies than urban areas. Because there are fewer and a smaller variety of jobs to choose from, rural communities may experience more widespread economic hardships than urban communities. A single economic downturn—a drop in farm prices, for example, or the closing of a mine—can cause economic hardship for an entire rural area.

The nation's rural areas, like its urban areas, have wealthy, middle class, and poor people. For the most part, however, the gaps between economic classes are not as large in rural areas as in urban areas. Most rural Americans live in single-family houses. The majority of the houses are comfortable and in good condition. But some people, including many who live in parts of Appalachia—in the eastern United States—and other pockets of rural poverty, have run-down houses and enjoy few luxuries.


Language. The United States has never had an official language, but English has always been the chief lan­guage spoken in the country. Immigrants from the Brit­ish Isles—who included the nation's founders—spoke English. Many immigrants from other lands who spoke little or no English also came to the United States. They learned at least enough English to be able to communi­cate with other Americans. Their children learned Eng­lish in school. The immigrants' children generally spoke both English and their ethnic language, and in many families the immigrants' grandchildren spoke only English.

Today, Spanish is the second most common language in the United States. The region that is now the South­western United States was colonized by Spain in the 1500's. As a result, many people from that region speak Spanish. Since the 1950s, many Spanish-speaking peo­ple have immigrated to the United States from Mexico, Cuba, and other places. Many of these people learned English. But others speak only Spanish. This is especially true in Spanish-speaking neighborhoods that developed in cities. Some people feel that special efforts should be made to provide education and other services in Span­ish for people who speak only Spanish.

Many people believe every American should know English. They point out that it is difficult to get a job out­side Spanish-speaking neighborhoods without a knowledge of English. They also argue that a language shared by everyone is an important unifying force for a country. In the i1980’s, a number of states passed laws declaring English to be their only official language. These laws provide that the government must offer its services in English, and need not do so in any other language. But in some places, public documents and signs in public places are written in both English and Spanish.

1.5. Religion if Americans

Religion plays an important role in the lives of millions of Americans. The country's churches provide people with moral guidance and places for worship. Many churches also serve as centers for social gatherings, such as a church picnic, above.

Religion. About 60 per cent of all the American people are members of an organized religious group. Among them, about 52 per cent are Protestants, 38 per cent Roman Catholics, 4 per cent jews, 3 per cent Mor­mons, and 3 per cent are members of Eastern Orthodox Churches. Relatively small numbers of Americans be­long to other faiths, such as Islam and Buddhism. Roman Catholics make up the largest single religious denomi­nation in the United States. About 56 million Americans are Roman Catholics. The country's largest Protestant groups are, in order of size, Baptists, Methodists, Pentecostals, Lutherans, and Presbyterians.

Religion has played an important role in the history of the United States. Many people came to the American Colonies to escape religious persecution in other lands. The early colonists included Puritans in New England, Roman Catholics in Maryland, and Quakers in Pennsyl­vania. The early Americans made religious freedom one of the country's basic laws. The First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which was adopted in 1791, guarantees every American freedom of religion. It also provides that no religious group be given official recognition as a state church. These provisions were in­tended to prevent persecution of religious minorities and the favoring of one church over another. Religious freedom was one of the reasons immigrants continued to flock to the United States through the years.

Although all religious groups in the United States enjoy freedom, Christian traditions have had a stronger influence on American life than those of any other faith. For example, most offices, factories, and other places of employment are closed on Sunday, the Sabbath of most Christians. The influence of Christianity results from the fact that a majority of the people are Christians.

Throughout the country's history, religion has influ­enced everyday life in a number of ways. For example, in colonial America many religious rules were enforcedby local governments (see Colonial life in America [The church]). Some of the laws that prohibited activities on Sunday still exist (see Sunday).

Today, religion has relatively less influence in the everyday lives of most Americans. But churches and other, religious organizations continue to play important roles in American life. Their chief functions are to providemoral guidance and places for worship. However, reli­gious groups also operate many elementary and sec­ondary schools, colleges, universities, hospitals, and nursing homes. They provide aid for refugees, the poor the elderly, orphans, and other persons in need. Social gatherings are held at many churches. Some religious І groups take active roles in discussing such issues as birtlh control and rights for minorities and women.

Historically, the United States' religious tradition has been dominated by Protestant Christianity, but this tradition coexists in a public sphere where religious plurality and secularism are the norm. For example, the United States Constitution enshrined individual freedom of religious practice, which courts have since interpreted to mean that the government is a secular institution, an idea called „reparation of church and state“.

According to the same study, the major Christian denominations (making up the vast majority of faiths actively practiced in the United States) are (in order): Roman Catholic, Baptist, Methodist, Lutheran, Presbyterian, Pentecostal (aka Charismatic or Evangelical), Episcopalian, Latter-Day Saints, Church of Christ, and Congregational.

According to other studies, as reported by the Statistical Abstract of the United States, Americans' self-reported religious affiliations are 56% Protestant, 27% Roman Catholic, 2% Judaism, 1% Orthodox Christianity, 1% Mormon faith, 5% „other specific“ religion, and 8% „other“ or „did not designate.“ Some 68% of Americans are members of a place of worship, and 44% attend that place of worship regularly.

1.6. Work and jobs

Most people commute to work using automobiles rather than mass transit (the New York Metropolitan Area is a notable exception); the effect of the automobile on the United States and its prominence in American life cannot be overestimated. Most jobs are based on a 40-hour work week; typically five days (Monday through Friday), eight hours per day. By law, after 40 hours, employers must pay overtime which is 150% their normal wage, although many workers are exempt, including almost all who work for a biweekly salary instead of an hourly wage. On holidays, some companies pay double.

The United States has minimum wage laws requiring a minimum wage for many employees, though a number of employment sectors are excluded. Minimum wage differs from state to state; some states have higher minimum wages than the wage mandated by the federal government.

According to equal opportunity labor laws, employers are not allowed to discriminate based on race, gender, religion, political convictions, family situation, marital or parental status. In addition, applicants need not provide photos or personal information on these topics, however drug tests and criminal background checks are sometimes required. Employees must pay federal and state income tax to the government. In most cases, employees are not allowed to attend work after drinking alcohol or to drink alcohol during work. Exceptions include some restaurant jobs, bars and business meetings.

Vacations are usually two weeks, but unlike in most developed countries, there is no legal minimum. Other company benefits may include sick days and/or personal days. The common retirement age is roughly 65, with many retiring either earlier or later, depending on their personal finances and their job statisfaction. Some Americans, especially professionals continue part-work such as teaching community college classes after retirement. Others continue to work past 65 due to their job statisfaction. US companies often offer benefits such as health and dental insurance, and life insurance. In addition, the benefits can often include the employee's family as well. A few companies provide various lessons for free, such as relaxation to improve their work performance. However, most benefits are not mandated by law, and there is a large range of wages, compensation and benefits in different types of jobs. Generally, the most physically demanding jobs such as construction and farm labor are the least well compensated. Compared to most European systems, work culture in the USA seems to be much harder for employees. For example, there is less paid vacation, paid sick days, maternity leave and benefits for parents.

1 .7.Recreation.

Recreation. Most Americans have a great deal of lei sure time, and they spend it in a variety of ways. They pursue hobbies, take part in sports activities, attend sporting and cultural events, watch movies and televi­sion, listen to music, and read books and magazines. They enjoy trips to museums, beaches, parks, play­grounds, and zoos. They take weekend and vacation trips, eat at restaurants, go on picnics, and entertain friends at home. These and other activities contribute to-the richness and diversity of American life.

Sports rank as a leading American pastime. Millions I of Americans enjoy watching such sports events as au­tomobile races, horse races, and baseball, basketball, and football games—either in person or on television. Many Americans, especially children and other young people, play baseball, basketball, football, and soccer. People of most ages participate in such sports as bicycle riding, boating, bowling, fishing, golf, hiking, hunting, running, skiing, Softball, swimming, and tennis.

Motion pictures, plays, concerts, operas, and dance performances attract large audiences in the United states. Americans find entertainment at home, as well. About 98 per cent of all American homes have a television set. On the average, a set is in use in each home for about seven hours a day.

Hobbies occupy much of the leisure time of many Americans. Large numbers of people enjoy raising boweror vegetable gardens or indoor plants. Other popular hobbies include stamp collecting, coin collecting, and photography. Since the mid-1900's, interest in HP1 crafts hobbies as needlepoint, quilting, weaving, pottery making, and woodworking has increased

Most Americans spend part of their leisure time traveling. Many take annual vacations, as well as occasional one-day excursions or weekend trips. Some people lave vacation homes near lakes or seashores, in the contains, or in other recreation areas. Others own protor homes or trailers, which provide comfortable livelong and sleeping quarters during trips. Some people enjoy camping in tents. Others prefer to stay in hotels or wotels while on trips.

1.8.Health and income

Income also had a significant impact on health as those with higher incomes had better access to health care facilities, higher life expectancy, lower infant mortality rate and increased health consciousness. While the United States lacks a universal health care system similar to those found in many other post-industrialized developed nations across Europe and Asia, 85% of the US population were insured in 2005. Yet, discrepancies seem to remain beyond the difference between insured and uninsured. In 2006 Harvard researchers divided the US into „eight Americas. “[27] Life expectancy ranges from 84.9 years for the 10,400,000 Asian Americans who had an average per capita income of $21,566. Urban African Americans with an average per capita income of a mere $14,800 had a life expectancy of merely 71.1 years.t27] Furthermore, the United States like other post-industrial nations saw increased health consciousness among persons of higher social status. Persons of higher status are less likely to smoke, more likely to exercise regularly and be more conscious of their diet.[28] Additionally poor American are more likely to consume lower quality, process food. One can therefore conclude that low socio-economic status contributes to a person's likelihood of being obese.[29][30] One does of course, need to note than any statements or research connecting health consciousness and income are generalizations, as are most other statements made in regards to the diverse culture of the United States.

American sports are quite distinct from those played elsewhere m the world. The top three spectator team sports are baseball, American football and basketball, which are all popular on both the college and professional levels. Baseball is the oldest of these. The professional game dates from 1869 and had no close rivals in popularity until the 1960s; though baseball is no longer the most popular sport it is still referred to as the „national pastime.“ Also unlike the professional levels of the other popular spectator sports in the U.S., Major League Baseball teams play almost every day from April to October. American football (known simply as „football“ in the U.S.) attracts more viewers within the country than baseball nowadays; however, National Football League teams play only 16 regular-season games each year, so baseball is the runaway leader in ticket sales. Basketball, invented in Massachusetts by the Canadian-born James Naismith, is another popular sport, represented professionally by the National Basketball Association.

Most residents along the northern tier of states recognize a fourth major sport -ice hockey. Always a mainstay of Great Lakes and New England-area culture, the sport gained tenuous footholds in regions like the Carolinas and Tampa Bay, Florida in recent years, as the National Hockey League pursued a policy of expansion.

The top tier of stock car auto racing, NASCAR, has grown from a mainly Southern sport to the second-most-watched sport in the U.S. behind football. It has largely outgrown a previously provincial image; it is now avidly followed by fans in all socioeconomic groups and NASCAR sponsorships in the premier Nextel Cup division are highly sought after by hundreds of the U.S.'s largest corporations.

Unlike in Europe, Africa, and Latin America, soccer has a relatively small following, and is mostly popular in the more international cities with large immigrant populations, like New York and Los Angeles. Generally few non-Hispanic American adults appear to be attracted to soccer as spectators, but the sport is widely played by children of affluent backgrounds (giving rise to the „soccer mom“ stereotype). Dramatic growth in youth participation has fueled the national team's steady rise in caliber of play over the last two decades of the 20th century and the 2000s. Almost as many girls as boys play youth soccer in the U.S., contributing to the women's national team becoming one of the world's premier women's sides.

The extent in America to which sports are associated with secondary and tertiary education is unique among nations. In basketball and football, high school and particularly college sports are followed with a fervor equaling or exceeding that felt for professional sports; college football games can draw six-digit crowds, many prominent high school football teams have stadiums that seat tens of thousands of spectators, and the college basketball championship tournament played in March draws enormous attention. For upper-tier schools, sports are a significant source of revenue. Though student athletes may be held to significantly lower academic requirements than non-athletes at many large universities, minimum standards do exist.

The U.S. is also known for endorsing of many newer or less popular sports, such as paintball, lacrosse, volleyball, etc.

9. Food

The types of food served at home vary greatly and depend upon the region of the country and the family's own cultural heritage. Recent immigrants tend to eat food similar to that of their country of origin, and Americanized versions of these cultural foods, such as American Chinese cuisine or Italian-American cuisine often eventually appear. German cuisine also had a profound impact on American cuisine, especially the mid-western cuisine, with potatoes and meat being the most iconic ingredients in both cuisines.[2] Dishes such as the hamburger, pot roast, baked ham and hot dogs are examples of American dishes derived from German cuisine.[34][35]

Families that have lived for a few generations in the U.S. tend to eat some combination of that and the food common to the region they live in or grew up in, such as New England cuisine, Midwestern cuisine, Southern cuisine, Tex-Mex cuisine, and Californian cuisine.

Around the world the United States is perhaps best known for its numerous and successful fast food franchises. Such chains, including McDonald's, Burger King and Kentucky Fried Chicken are known for selling simple, pre-prepared meals of foods such as hamburgers, French fries, soft drinks, fried chicken, and ice cream. Though undeniably popular, such food, with its emphasis on deep-frying, has been criticized by dietitians in recent decades for being unhealthy and a cause of obesity. It has thus become somewhat of a stereotype to associate American cuisine with obesity and junk food, for in reality, fast food represents only a tiny fraction of available American cuisine.

Americans eat a wide variety of foods. A typical planer consists of meat and potatoes, plus a lettuce ailed a vegetable, and sometimes rolls or bread. Famishes dinner meats include beef steaks, ground beef HMjjp5' chicken, ham, and turkey. Fish, shellfish, and ach dishes as pizza and spaghetti also serve as main rises.

For lunch, many Americans eat a sandwich, such as al hamburger or a hot dog. Other favorite sandwiches in­clude those made with meat or sliced sausage, cheese, peanut butter, and chicken or tuna salad.

Some Americans enjoy a hearty breakfast of eggs or pancakes served with bacon or sausage. Others prefer a light breakfast of toast or a pastry, or cereal with milk and fruit. Orange juice accompanies many breakfasts.

Cake, cookies, pie, and ice cream are eaten as des­serts and snacks. Other snack foods include chocolate candy, potato or corn chips, and fruits such as bananas, apples, oranges, and grapes.

Beverages are drunk with meals and also at other times for refreshment. Consumption of soft drinks, espe­cially cola, exceeds that of any other beverage. Ameri­cans also drink much coffee, milk, and beer, and smaller amounts of fruit juices, tea, and wine.

Americans eat out often. Fast-food restaurants have wide popularity. They offer a limited variety of foods, all of which are served within a few minutes. Common fast-food items include hamburgers and other sandwiches, fried chicken, and French fried potatoes. Many Ameri­cans also enjoy the cooking of other countries. Chinese, French, Italian, and Mexican restaurants have long been popular. In recent years, Americans have begun to enjoy the cuisines of India, Japan, the Middle East, and many other areas.

Some regions of the United States have distinctive food specialties. For information on such foods, see Ha-

All corn does not pop. A seed or kernel of corn must have 14 percent water in it to pop. Other kinds of corn have less water and do not pop. When you put a kernel of corn on a fire, the water inside makes the corn explode. This makes a „pop“ noise. That is why we call it popcorn.

The American Indians popped corn a long time ago. The Indians knew there were three kinds of corn. There was sweet corn for eating, corn for animals, and corn for popping. The Indians introduced corn to thefirst settlers, or Pilgrims, when they came toAmerica in 1620. One year after they came, the Pilgrirm had Thanksgiving dinner. They invited the Indians. The Indians brought food with them. One Indian brought popcorn!

Since that time Americans continued to pop corn at home. But 1945 there was a new machine that changed the history of popcorn. This electric machine popped corn outside the home. Soon movie theaters started to sell popcorn to make more money. Popcorn at the movies became more and more popular. Today, Americans still continue the custom of eating popcorn at the movies.

Americans use 500,000 pounds of popcorn every year. Many people like to put salt and melted butter on their popcorn. Some people eat without salt or butter. Either way—Americans love their popcorn!

Americans love to eat peanut butter. But what is peanut butter? It is a thick, creamy paste. You buy it in a jar at the grocery store. Manufacturers roast peanuts and take off the skin. Then they grind them into a thick paste—that's peanut butter!

The peanut is not really a nut, but a pea. It is a strange pea because it grows underground. But peanut plants also have green vines with yellow flowers. These vines or stems grow above the ground and are quite long. Peanuts are very healthy for you. They have more protein than a steak and \ they have many vitamins, too.

The peanut comes from South America, but peanut butter is a food that is truly „American.“ Peanut butter started in 1890 in St. Louis. A doctor made some peanut butter. He gave it to patients who could not eat regular food. Later, peanut butter was popular as a health food.

Peanut butter is very popular with children in the United States. Perhaps their favorite way to eat it is in a sandwich. Many children add jelly to their peanut butter sandwiches. This makes a favorite snack or lunchtime meal.

II. Features of character of Americans

2.1.Irust and of Americans on God

Religion plays very important role in America. There are a lot of different kinas of religion But most of people believe in God. They think that all depends from God and they must hope, ask for help, pray more.

John F. Kennedy had told that:” The world is very different now. For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life and yet the same revolutionary belles for wich our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe – the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state, but from of America or citizens of the world, ask of us here the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you final judge of our deeds, let us go forth to lead we love asking blessing His help, but knowing that here on earth God’s work must truly be our own”.

I understand it that e must believe in God, hope on Him, pray more and more and do not forget about only on God, to achieve the, aim and don’t forget abut God, ask him for help, pray and believe in Him.

Ronald Reagan had told us about God’s help that we can solve our problem only together with God, that he had believed God. «I am – I’m told that tens of thousands of prayer meetings are being held on this day, and for that I am deeply grateful. We are nation under God, and I believe God intended for us to be free. It would be fitting and good I think if on each inaugural day in future years it should be declared a day of prayer. The crisis we are facing today does not require of us the kind of sacrifice that Martin Treptow and so many thousands of others were called upon to make. It believe in ourselves and to believe in our capacity to perform deeds, to believe that together with God’s help we can and will resolve the problems which now confront us».

President Kennedy, who said that «no religious body should seek to impose its will» also urged religious leaders to state their views and give their commitment when the public debate involved ethical issues. In drawing the line between imposed will and essential witness, they keep church and state separate, and at the same time we recognize that city of should speak to the civic duties of men and women.

Religions values can not be excluded from every public issue, but not every public issue involves religious value.

William Jefferson Clinton. Oklahoma bombing memorial prayer service address had said:

“But for so many of you they were also neighbor and friends. You saw them at church or the PTA meetings, at the civic clubs, at the ball park. You know them in ways that all the rest of America could not. And to all members of the families here present who have suffered loss, though we hare your grief, your pain is unimaginable, and we know that. We can not undo it. That is God’s work. To all my fellow Americans beyond this hall, I say, one thing we owe those who have sacrificed is the duty to purge ourselves of the dark forces which gave rise to this evil. They are forces that threaten our common peace, our freedom, our way of life. Let us teach our children that the Cod of comfort is also the God of righteousness: Those who trouble their own house will inherit the wind. Justice will prevail».

I understand it that we must teach our children about God, and I thin k not only children but all who are around us that God of comfort is also the God of honesty, goodness, friendly. And I think that Americans believe God, that they don’t forget about Him as William Jefferson Clinton had said that they had to teach children a bout God, and than they had to teach children a bout God, and than justice will prevail.

I know that most of Americans trust Cod, pray, ask Him for help, go to church. I can prove it Most of American people in this book in their oratory spoke about God and of the end of every article each of them thanked Gad. For example. Ronald Reagan: putting American back to work: «God bless you and thank you».

Mary Fisher: a Whisper of Aids: “God bless the children, and God bless us all” etc.

Robert F. Kennedy had told his favorite poem. This poem is about God.: “Even in our sleep, pain which cannot forget.

Falls drop by drop upon the heart,

Until, in our own despair,

Against our will,

Comes wisdom

Through the awful grace of god”.

2.2. Love of Americans to their native country

Americans love their county very much and they are proud of their country and they can do all to their country to defend it.

I can prove it. Martin Luther King: Beyond Vietnam – a Time to Break silence in world, can well lead the way in this revolution of values. A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death”

People of America love their country so that they had dreams often only about their country, their better life in it and even song which they would sing.

Martin Luther King, JR.: I Have a Dream: — “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed:“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal”.

— “I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will de able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.”

— “I have a dream that one day the state of Mississippi? A state sweltering with heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice”

— “With this faith, we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith, we will be able to trans form the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day».

2.3. Americans are vitally concerned in their defense of freedom

And it is really true. They love their country and they also love freedom of their country – America.

I can prove it by words of Franklin Delano Roosevelt: The Four Freedoms” Franklin Delano Roosevelt said: ”We Americans are vitally concerned in your defense of freedom. We are putting forth our energies, our resources, and our organizing powers to give you the strength to regain and maintain a free world. We shall send you in ever – increasing numbers, ships, planes, tanks, guns.

I understand it that Americans are people who love their country, love freedom, love each other and together they can do all to defend freedom, their native country.

Also Franklin Roosevelt said: “ The nation takes great satisfaction and much strength from the things which have been to make its people conscious of their individual stake in the preservation of democratic life in America. Those things have toughened the fiber of our people, have renewed their faith and strengthened their devotion to the institutions we make ready to protect».

As we see, Americans ready to protect their native country in any time. And to protect they country hey must renew their faith that they can it to do.

«No realistic American expect from a dictator’s peace international generosity, or return or true independence, or world disarmament, or freedom of expression, or freedom of religion – or even good business. Such a peace would bring no security for us or for our neighbors. Those who would give up essential liberty to purchase a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty safety”. In times like these it is immature-and, incidentally, untrue – for anybody to brag that an unprepared America, single – handed and with one had tied behind its back can hold off the whole world. This nation has placed its destiny in the hands and heads and hearts of its millions of free men and women, and its faith in freedom under the guidance of God. Freedom

еще рефераты
Еще работы по истории