Лекция: River Action

By Miranda Howard

A river rises at its 1) sour_e. It flows 2) downsl_pe and enters the sea at its 3) est_ary. Rivers flow quickly down steep slopes. They erode the land and transport eroded material from highland to lowland areas. How quickly they erode the land depends on three things. Firstly, the hardness of rock – 4) s_ft rock erodes faster than hard rock. Secondly, the 5) a_ount of water – rivers with large 6) vol_mes of water, such as rivers in 7) flo_d, erode faster than those with less water. Thirdly, the speed of river water.

There are four important 1) ______ involved in river erosion. Hydraulic action describes the force with which moving 2) ______ breaks off pieces of rock and soil from the bed and banks of a 3) ______ channel. Next, attrition is when boulders and other material being carried by the water 4) ______ and break up. Then, abrasion is when the river then uses its load 5) ______ its bed and banks, making its channel deeper and 6) ______. Lastly, 7) ______ is when acids dissolve some rocks.

There are four ways 1) (river, rivers) transport materials downstream. Firstly, the lighter particles are 2) (carried, carrying) in suspension – they are lifted and carried along 3) (by, from) the water. Similarly, 4) (more heavy, heavier) particles, such as sand and gravel, are bounced along the river bed. 5) (This, These) is called saltation. Additionally, the heaviest particles slide or are rolled and dragged along 6) (--, the) river bed. This is called traction. Finally, some materials are dissolved and are carried in solution.


1. Барановська Т.В. Граматика англійської мови. Збірник вправ: Навч. посібник. Видання друге, виправлене та доповненею – Мова англ., укр. – Київ: ТОВ “ВП Логос-М», 2007. – 384с.

2. Л.В. Мисик, А.Л. Арцишевська, Л.Р. Кузнєцова, Л.Л. Поплавська. Англійська мова. Комунікативний аспект. / За ред. доц. Мисик Л.В. – Підручник. – К.: Атіка, 2000. – 368с

Робота над текстом за професійним спрямуванням. Завдання до тексту

I. Вставте пропущені букви у словах першого абзацу.

II. Виберіть та вставте запропоновані у дужках слова (eroded, port, away, flooding, waves, harmful, harbor) у другому абзаці.

III. У третьому абзаці оберіть правильну граматичну форму.

IV. Складіть план до тексту.V. Поставте 10 запитань до тексту.VI. Напишіть анотацію.

From the FOCUS on Geography


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