Лекция: Упр. 1. Текст для перевода с листа.
- Переведите следующие словосочетания на русский язык. Если необходимо, выясните значение новых слов в словаре.
The war, which ended in a truce, not a peace treaty; tentative truce; a truce will not last/hold long; the decision by both sides to call a six-month truce; a day after the Palestinian leader called a ceasefire; fragile peace; fragile ceasefire; the ceasefire collapsed/broke down; to enforce a ceasefire; to pave the way for talks; a treaty entered/went into force; a rival faction; a secular party; early election; general election; rigged election; belligerent actions; to step down as prime minister; to derail/destroy the peace process.
- Прочитайте и переведите следующий текст на русский язык.
Can a ceasefire hold?
It is uncertain how long a recently agreed truce may last—or whether it may pave the way towards a wider settlement
1. AFTER three months of indirect negotiations via Egyptian mediators, a ceasefire between Israel and Hamas*, the Islamist movement that controls the Gaza Strip, went into force early on June 19th. If that holds, Israel will begin slightly to ease the economic blockade it imposed when Hamas wrested control of the strip from its secular political rival, Fatah.
2. Both sides could benefit from a break. Gazan militants have killed a dozen Israelis in eight years, but keep tens of thousands terrified. Israel's attacks on Gaza have been more targeted but far bloodier: they have killed some 370 Gazans this year alone, not all of them gunmen and at least 70 of them children.
3. Israel has built up economic pressure, too. The 15 months of sanctions it imposed on the Palestinian Authority following Hamas's victory in a general election had already weakened the economy; the blockade on Gaza, during which Israel let in only minimal levels of humanitarian goods and fuel, has ruined it. But the combined military and economic pressure no doubt played a part in Hamas's decision to call a truce. In any event, the ceasefire is fragile, not least because both Hamas and the Israelis have doubts about its benefits. The big push came from Egypt, which took on the mediator's role after particularly fierce fighting earlier this year.
4. Various things could end the ceasefire. Though other militant groups in Gaza hint that they would respect it, some may try to spoil it. Among them are members of Fatah*, Hamas's secular rival, which still feels bitter because of Hamas's takeover. Since Israel and Hamas refuse direct contact, Egypt will provide the channel for resolving disagreements or dampening sudden flare-ups.
5. Moreover, maintaining the ceasefire will require progress that both sides are uneasy about. Hamas wants Israel to lift its economic siege and ultimately extend the ceasefire to the West Bank. But Israel's ultimate goal is still to weaken Hamas in favour of Fatah. It is holding talks with Fatah's leader, Mahmoud Abbas, the Palestinian president, who runs the West Bank. Fatah itself has been making noises about reconciliation with Hamas in the past few days, but for that very reason would rather see the Islamists weakened, so that it gets the best terms for a rapprochement.
6. In short, the ceasefire is likely to last only as long as neither side feels it is helping the other side too much. And if it breaks down? Israeli leaders were sounding ever-more belligerent before the ceasefire; a massive incursion to strike a mortal blow at Hamas was a matter of time. A security official says that the differences of opinion in the defence establishment on such an operation are now merely “tactical”.
7. Yet there is an element of bravado in all this, no doubt fuelled by the fact that Israeli politicians are scenting early elections in the wake of the latest corruption scandal to engulf the Israeli prime minister. A full-scale incursion against Hamas's estimated force of 15,000-20,000 armed and well-trained men could cost a lot of Israeli soldiers' lives, more than have ever been killed by the rockets, to say nothing of the hundreds of Palestinians who would undoubtedly die, bringing international condemnation on Israel and derail the peace process with the Palestinians.
8. So a ceasefire gives both the Israeli PM and his defence minister and political rival, who last month issued an ultimatum to his boss to step down or face early elections, some welcome space. But ultimately the biggest winner may be a rival to both of them: the leader of the opposition Likud party, who currently leads in the polls. If there is heavy fighting, voters may still return to the battle-tested defense minister, a former army chief. If the ceasefire holds, the Likud party could reap the rewards.
Hamas – ХАМАС(не склоняется). Исламское движение сопротивления. Ведет мусульманскую священную войну (джихад) против Израиля, выступает за его уничтожение и создание исламского теократического государства на всей территории Палестины и Иордании, не отказывается от террористических методов. Движение ХАМАС официально выступало против любого мирного соглашения с Израилем. В 2005 одержало победу на муниципальных выборах. Правящая партия с 2006.
Fatah – движение ФАТХ.Палестинское движение национального освобождения; до 2006 формировало Палестинскую администрацию. Образовано в 1959 Арафатом. Выступает за создание арабского государства на территориях, оккупированных Израилем в 1967.
Упр.2. Переведите следующие сочетания из текста на английский язык:
Неясно сколько продлится недавно достигнутое перемирие; подготовить почву для более широкого урегулирования; косвенные переговоры при участии египетских посредников (1); боевики (2 варианта) (2); наращивать/усиливать экономическое давление (3);
взять на себя роль посредника (3); вооруженные группировки (4); внезапные вспышки (насилия) (4); поддерживать/соблюдать соглашение о прекращении огня (5); снять экономическую блокаду (осаду) (5); примирение; сближение (5); …если перемирие будет нарушено (6).