Лекция: He Has One Rabbit at Home
Teacher: «Who can tell me how much five and one make?» No answer.
Teacher: «Suppose I give you five rabbits and then another rabbit. How many rabbits would you have?» Pupil: «Seven.»
Teacher: «Seven? How do you make that out?» Pupil: «I have one rabbit at home already.»
Exercise VI. Read the following riddles to your fellow-students.
1. What word of three syllables contains twenty-six letters?
2. Which is the strongest day of the week?
3. Which month of the year is the shortest?
4. What is that was tomorrow and will be yesterday?
5. What musical instrument will you not believe?
6. Whose face needs no washing?
7. When is a mouth not mouth?
8. What can you see with your eyes shut?
9. When is it dangerous to have an arm?
10. What star is not seen in the sky?
Answers to the riddles:
1. ABC — Alphabet.
2. Sunday (because the rest are week-days), a pun: week/weak.
5. A lyre; a pun: lyre — liar.
6. The face of the clock
7. When a box of sweets make it water.
8. A dream
9. When it is a fire-arm. 10. A film star.
Exercise VII.Read the, dialogue and act it out.
What Time Does the Plane Leave?
R о b e r t: What's the time?
Emily: Ten past two, dear.
Robert: When does the plane leave?
Emily: Not until a quarter to four.
Robert: Why did we get here so early?
Emily: Because you said we must allow plenty of time for traffic jams and accidents.
Robert: Where's my briefcase? What have you done with my briefcase?
Emily: It's there, dear, between your feet.
Robert: Emily! Where are you going?
Emily: I'm going to ask that gentleman what they were announcing over the loudspeaker.
Robert: Which gentleman?
Emily: That man over there with all the packages.
Robert: Who is he?
Emily: I don't know. But he looked as though he was listening to the announcement… Yes, I was afraid so. The plane's delayed. It won't be leaving till five.
Robert: How did he manage to hear it if we didn't?
Emily: Because he was listening. You were talking too much to me.
Robert: What do you mean, I was talking too much?
Emily: Oh dear. Never mind.
Robert: What time is it now, Emily?
UNIT 11. INTONATION OF EXCLAMATIONS AND INTERJECTIONS
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ВОСКЛИЦАНИЙ И МЕЖДОМЕТИЙ
Восклицания и междометия, как правило, произносятся с нисходящим тоном: с низким нисходящим тоном, если говорящий хочет, чтобы они звучали весомо, эмфатически, и с высоким нисходящим тоном, если они произнесены менее весомо, более эмфатически и заинтересованнее. Например:
Exercise I. Listen to the sentences and repeat them.
Exercise II. Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of the replies.
Exercise III. Listen to the dialogues and reproduce them.
1. — I really must be going now.
— Pity! Can't you stay a little longer?
— Thanks awfully. But I'm late already.
— Oh, dear! What a shame!
— We'll meet on Friday.
— Fine. Welcome back!
2. — Hallo, Ann. Pleased to meet you! My best congratulations! They say you've passed your exams successfully.
— Thank you very much. I was lucky, but Lily has got a bad mark in history.
— Fancy that! Poor thing! I'll help her with the history.
— How sweet of you!
Exercise IV.Complete the dialogues using the following phrases.
— It's my birthday today. — Why is Helen so gloomy?
—… Some flowers for you. — Don't you know? She failed
—… in English yesterday.
— Meet my friend Nina. — ...
—… — Don't pity her. It serves
—… her right.
— I can help her. I am good at English.
Exercise V. Read the dialogue and act it out.
I've Won a Prize!
Michael: Jennifer! Guess what! I've won a prize! ,Jennifer:A prize? What sort of prize?
M i с h a e 1: A super prize. Dinner for two at Maxime's!
Jennifer: You are clever! What was the prize for? I mean, what did you do to win a dinner for two at Maxime's?
Michael: Well, you're not to laugh — I went in for a competition at the Adult Education Centre — a cooking contest.
Jennifer: You won a prize in a cooking contest! I've got to laugh. Michael, you can't even boil an egg!
Michael: I can boil an egg. I can scramble one, too. Most deliciously. Of course, I'm not a Cordon Bleu cook, like you ...
Jennifer: Well, why haven't I ever won a cooking competition?
Michael: Probably because you never go in for competitions. I'm glad you didn't go in for this one. You might have won, and then you would have had to invite me to dinner at Maxime's!
UNIT 12. INTONATION OF ENUMERATION
В предложениях, содержащих перечисление, обычно каждая незаконченная смысловая группа произносится восходящим тоном. Например:
Exercise I. Read the following sentences. Observe the intonation of enumeration.
1. We saw a good deal during those two weeks. We went to Venice, Florence, Rome and Naples. 2. Which writers do you have to study for your examinations? — Chaucer, Shakespeare, Milton, Pope and Swift. 3. My husband is very fond of outdoor games. He plays tennis, golf, cricket and polo. 4. What lessons did you have today? — We had Latin, maths, French and history. 5. You could easily become an interpreter. You know English, French, German, Spanish and Russian.
Exercise II. Listen to the sentences and read them.
1. London offers a visitor a rich store of fascinating buildings. London offers a visitor a rich store of fascinating buildings, streets. London offers a visitor a rich store of fascinating buildings, streets, monuments. London offers a visitor a rich store of fascinating buildings, streets, monuments, and colourful ceremonies.
2. Certain traditions are observed in England. During festivals certain traditions are observed in England. During festivals, holidays certain traditions are observed in England. During festivals, holidays and celebrations certain traditions are observed in England.
Exercise III. Read the sentences. Mark the stresses and tunes.
1. Britain was the originator of many sports such as football, rugby, golf, cricket, hockey and lawn tennis. 2. Ushinsky made trips to Germany, Switzerland, France, Italy and Belgium to observe school organization there. He travelled, lectured, held conferences and interviews. 3. Russia has large reserves of oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, copper, lead and other minerals. 4. Our University trains teachers in many subjects: physics, mathematics, history, the Russian language and literature, geography, biology, drawing, music and so on. 5. The curriculum of our faculty consists of different subjects: psychology, history of education, pedagogics, foreign languages, history of Russia and physical training. 6. The most outstanding world educators are: Pestalozzi, Rousseau, Comenius, Ushinsky, Makarenko. 7. In ancient Greece and Rome children learned writing, reading, arithmetic, music and poetry. 8. The ladies usually talk about the weather, the latest fashions and their friends. The men discuss politics, business, the latest news and football. 9. A woman is an angel at ten, a saint at fifteen, a devil at forty and a witch at four score.
Exercise IV. Read the story and render it.
My friend Tom is very capable and he can do some very difficult things. But the easier the thing, the less capable he feels to do it. For instance, he can drive a car, sail a boat, drive a tractor but be cannot ride a bicycle. Isn't that a funny thing?
Tom is a good sportsman. He can play basket-ball, volley-ball, football and tennis. He can also run, skate, and ski very well. But he cannot swim. Isn't it strange?
He learns languages easily too. He can speak English, German, Italian, and French. He can speak, write, and read these languages. He can read and write Chinese but he cannot speak it. He cannot speak a word. How ridiculous!
Exercise V. Read the text, mark the stresses and tunes. Prepare it for test reading.
There are twenty-two universities in Great Britain: sixteen in England, four in Scotland, one in Wales and one in Northern Ireland.
A University consists of a number of faculties: medicine, arts, philosophy, law, music, natural science, economics, engineering, agriculture, commerce and education. After three years of study a student may proceed to a Bachelor's degree, later to the degrees of Master and Doctor.
The leading universities in England are: Oxford, Cambridge and London. English universities greatly differ from each other. They differ in date of foundation, history, tradition, internal government, methods of instruction, ways of student life, size, etc. Each university has its own problems, each looks at them in its own way.
UNIT 13. INTONATION OF COMPLEX SENTENCES
ИНТОНАЦИЯ СЛОЖНЫХ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЙ
Если придаточное предложение стоит перед главным, то оно обычно выделяется в отдельную синтагму и произносится низким восходящим тоном. Например:
Если сложное предложение начинается с главного, то обычно обе части произносятся нисходящим тоном. Например:
Exercise I. Listen carefully to the sentences below. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of the non-final adverbial clauses.
1. After Peter had locked the door, he went to bed. 2. When the examination was over, Susan had a feeling of relief. 3. When I gave my name, the woman opened the door. 4. If it's all the same to you, I'd rather walk. 5. Next time you are in Moscow, come and see me. 6. When she arrived at the station, the train had gone. 7. If you are going my way I can give you a lift. 8. If a man deceives me once, shame on him, if he deceives me twice, shame on me. 9. If you could stay longer, so much the better. 10. If you take a taxi, you'll be in time. 11. If we look on our planet's life, we can get a multiplex picture. 12. If you are interested in historical places, visit the Tower. 13. When he comes, ask him to wait. 14. If you don't work hard, you will fail in English. 15. If you know foreign languages you can understand the silence of a foreigner.
Exercise II.Read the following sentences. Follow the intonation line exactly.
Exercise III. Listen to your fellow-student reading the sentences. Tell him what his errors in intonation are.
1. If you are busy today, come tomorrow. 2. When you are tired of London, go down to the sea for a week. 3. Take your car with you, if you've got one. 4. If you want to get a general idea of a country, you must study the map. 5. Phone me up when you come home. 6. When you finish reading this book, I'll give you a new one. 7. If it rains, take an umbrella. 8. She will be happy if she marries Tom. 9. When we were children we used to enjoy playing on the beach. 10. If you cross Russia from the extreme North to the South, you will get a very good idea of the climate contrasts. 11. Go to Westminster Abbey, if you're interested in churches. 12. If you finish your exercise soon, you may go for a walk. 13. I'll be glad, if we come together. 14. Speak louder if you want to be heard. 15. Never speak loudly unless the house is on fire. 16. If you can't speak, learn to listen.
Exercise IV. Complete the following sentences and intone them.
1. When I finish my work… 2. If you can stay longer… 3. If it rains… 4. Let me know when… 5. Nobody can help me if… 6. If the weather is fine… 7. If you want a guide to show you round… 8. When you're tired of London… 9. When winter comes… 1.0. Our delegation will start for London as soon as… 11. We'll phone her later, when… 12. They'll pass their exams if ...
Exercise V. Listen to the dialogue. Mark the stresses and tunes. Read it.
— What are you going to do on Sunday?
— I'm going to watch a football match.
— If I were you, I'd better go to the country.
— I don't mind if we come together.
— Of course, if you like, I'll be glad if we come together. We'll go to the country if the weather is fine. If it rains we'll stay at home and watch a football match on TV.
Exercise VI.Read the story. Pick out sentences with subordinate clauses at the beginning. Observe the intonation they are pronounced with.
If you're going to stay in London for some time, you can see many places of interest. If you can stay longer, so much the better. If you are fond of arts, visit the National Gallery. The National Picture Gallery is comparatively young. If you stand today in Trafalgar Square with your back to Nelson's column, you'll see the National Gallery. It has been in this building since 1838.
If you are interested in the history of English painting, you'll be curious to know the following interesting fact. In 1777 one of the greatest private collections of pictures was offered for sale. Some of the members of Parliament suggested this collection to be bought and placed in a special gallery near the British Museum. But this suggestion found no support in the House of Commons and the wonderful pictures were brought to Russia. If you want to see these pictures, you can find them in the Gallery of Hermitage.
When you're in St. Petersburg, you can admire a great number of pictures by great British painters: Hogarth, Constable, Turner, Gainsborough, Reynolds and so on.
Exercise VII.Read and memorize.
If many men knew,
What many men know,
If many men went,
Where many men go,
If many men did,
What many men do,
The world would be better
I think so, don't you?
(by B. R. Hudelson)
UNIT 14. INTONATION OF ADVERBIALS
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ОБСТОЯТЕЛЬСТВЕННОЙ ГРУППЫ
Обстоятельственные группы в начале предложений обычно выделяются в отдельную синтагму и произносятся низким восходящим тоном. Например:
Обстоятельственные группы в конце предложений, как правило, подуударны или безударны. Например:
Exercise I. Read the sentences. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of the adverbials.
1. During the latest years our country has changed beyond recognition. 2, In 1918 the capital of the country was moved to Moscow. 3. Under tsar Fyodor Moscow was already considered to be one of the largest cities in Europe. 4. In front of you is an ancient monument of Red Square — Pokrovsky Cathedral. 5. On the left you can see the Tower of London. 6. Not far from Trafalgar Square there is a quiet little street. 7. On Tuesday we have two seminars. 8. On the 12th of May I leave for London.
Exercise II. Read the sentences according to the given model.
1. There are more than 80 parks in London. 2. There are four seasons in a year. 3. Sunday is a very quiet day in London. 4. They often watch TV after supper in the evening. 5. People like to go to the country for skiing in winter. 6. Thanksgiving Day was marked irregularly after 1623. 7. I fell asleep after a few minutes. 8. There are many good laboratories at our Institute. 9. We see a stand for hats, coats and umbrellas in the hall. 10. You can see a large window on the left.
Exercise III. Listen to the following sentences. Mark the stresses and tunes.
1. The Arctic Ocean and its seas wash the frontiers of Russia in the north. 2. During the Second World War the British Museum was badly damaged. 3. You can find a complete reconstruction of Sherlock Holmes' living-room on the upper floor. 4. The streets are lit by electricity at night. 5. In spring Nature awakens from her long winter sleep. 6. At two o'clock lessons start again. 7. At night millions of stars shine in the darkness. 8. We have a holiday on the first of May. 9. In the picture we can see a sitting-room. 10. We have thirty days in November.
Exercise IV. Complete the sentences and read them. Keep the exercise moving on rapidly.
1. On Sunday… 2. In May… 3. At night… 4. On the ground floor… 5. On the right… 6. At seven o'clock in the morning… 7. In 1872… 8. During the term-time… 9. On the 7th of October… 10. In winter… 11. A few minutes later… 12. In the picture ...
Exercise V. Listen to the dialogue. Practise and memorize it.
— What d'you usually do on Sunday?
— It depends on the season. In winter I usually read or go to the club. In summer I usually go to the country.
— What do you usually do there?
— In the morning I usually work in my garden. At three o'clock I have dinner. After dinner I go to the river. At seven we have supper.
— What d'you do after supper?
— After supper I usually go to the pictures. At eleven o'clock in the evening I go to bed.
Exercise VI. Read the text. Pick out sentences with the adverbials. Explain their intonation.
We have a house in a London suburb. I bought it about fifteen years ago when I got married. It consists of two floors. On the ground floor we have the dining-room, the sitting-room, the kitchen and the hall. In the hall you can see a stand for hats, coats and umbrellas. A staircase leads from the hall to the landing on the first floor. On the top floor we have four bedrooms and a bathroom. On the top of the roof there are two chimneys. In front of the house we have a small garden. At the back of the house you can see a much larger garden with a lawn and some fruit-trees.
UNIT 15. INTONATION OF PARENTHESES
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ВВОДНОЙ ГРУППЫ
Интонация вводных слов в начале предложения зависит от говорящего. Если говорящий не придает значение вводным словам, они, как правило, произносятся быстро, часто неударны и не образуют отдельную синтагму. Например:
Если говорящий придает большое значение вводным словам, они образуют отдельную синтагму и произносятся либо нисходящим, либо восходящим или нисходяще-восходящим тоном. Например:
Вводная смысловая группа в конце предложения обычно безударна или полуударна и продолжает мелодию предшествующей смысловой группы. Например:
Вводная смысловая группа в середине предложения может произноситься как с восходящей, так и с нисходящей интонацией. Например:
Exercise I. Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of the replies.
Exercise II. Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Mark the stresses and tunes in the replies.
Where do you go? — I think, we prefer the Crimea.
What about indoor games? — Well, there's chess, billiards,
cards, table tennis. By the way, do you play tennis?
And how are things with you? — Not too good, I'm afraid.
You're thirty-five, aren't you? — As a matter of fact I'm nearly forty.
Are you fond of music? — Of course I am.
Is it possible to see anything — Well, yes, but not half enough.
of Moscow in one or two days?
Why not go to the Tretyakov — I think I will.
The Tretyakov Gallery is — I suppose it is.
much too big to be seen
in an hour or so.
What about a trip on the — That's not a bad idea you know.
Moskva river? I think that's a good idea.
Exercise III.Listen to the dialogue. Prepare it for test reading.