Лекция: Transcription

In any language we can identify a small number of regularly used sounds (vowels and consonants) that we call phonemes. We often use special symbols to represent speech sounds (transcription). Here is the International Phonetic Alphabet which is used to represent the sounds.



/p/ /k/ /s/ /T/ /h/ /l/
/b/ /g/ /z/ /D/ /m/ /w/
/t/ /f/ /S/ /C/ /n/ /j/
/d/ /v/ /Z/ /G/ /N/ /r/


/J/ /V/ /A/ /eI/ /qV/
/I/ /H/ /R/ /aI/ /Iq/
/e/ /P/ /E:/ /OI/ /eq/
/x/ /L/ /q/ /aV/ /Vq/


This way of writing or transcribing makes it possible to show that some words, which are spelt in the same way, sound different (e.g. read [rJd] [red]), or that some words, which are spelt differently, sound the same (e.g. rain, rein, reign [reIn]).


Self-check questions

1. What parts of the tongue do you know? What sounds are pronounced with the help of it?

2. Dwell on the vocal cords and their four main positions.

3. How many groups of consonants are there? Speak on them.

4. Which transcription symbols are different from the ones you’ve learned at school?

5. Speak on the general rule of the English consonants.

6. What are five features of the English vowels?

7. What is the difference between lenis and fortis consonants?

8. What are cardinal vowels?


English rhythm practice

Listen to this poem. Practise reading it.

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