Лекция: My University 4 страница


18. Прочтите и переведите текст:



Natural gas either occurs together with crude oil or forms separate deposits of gas alone. Decomposition of both animal and vegetable remains over a period of many centuries without air is the source of natural gas. A gread volume of gas accumulates and penetrates into porous beds of sand, sandstones and limestones. In these beds gas can form natural deposits under great pressure. When a borehole reaches such a deposit the gas rushes up. This gas has to be collected from several boreholes with the help of pipelines over long distances. Russia has a gigantic network of pipelines.

Natural gas is an inflammable gas and consists of hydrocarbons with a very low boiling point. Methane ( CH4 ) makes up approximately 85 per cent of the typical natural gas. Ethane (C2 H6 ) can be present up to 10 % and propane ( C3 H8 ) up to 3 %.

Butane, pentane, hexane, octane and a few other gases may also be present. In contrast to crude petroleum natural gas has no distinct odour.

Little of natural gas we may use chemically ,most of it we use as a fuel for the production of both heat and energy. Like all gaseous fuels natural gas has great amount of heat. Natural gas is valuable also as an important chemical raw material for industry, as chemical technologists are able to obtain hydrogen, acetylene, carbon black and various chlorine derivatives.

Natural gas occurs mainly in Russia and some other CIS countries and in the United States where most of the extraction and utilization takes place. Before the war we utilized gas only at Baku and in the Carpathian Mountains. Since then they have discovered numerous new sources, for example, in the Ukhta (Russia) and Emba regions (Kazakhstan), near Saratov, Uzbekistan, Volgograd and Grozny. In Europa they found rich deposits in Rumania and Italy, smaller ones in Austria and France. Germany also has several small but intensively worked fields.


19. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. Does natural gas occur together with crude oil or does it form separate deposits? 2. What is the main source of natural gas? 3. In what beds can gas form natural deposits?

4. What happens when a borehole reaches a deposit of natural gas under great pressure? 5. What network of pipelines has Russia. 6. In natural gas an inflammable gas? 7. What does natural gas consist of? 8. What is the main component of natural gas? 9. Has natural gas any distinct odour? 10. Do we use natural gas mainly as a fuel? 11. Is natural gas an important chemical raw material for industry? 12. What countries are the main producers of natural gas? 13. In what areas of Russia and CIS is natural gas produced at present? 14. What countries of Europe are rich in natural gas?


20. Перескажите текст, используя вопросы упражнения 19.


21. Запомните слова:


Combustible – горючий manifestation – проявление

ancient – древний supernatural – сверхестественный

legend – легенда force – сила

B.C. – before Christ – до н.э. to worship – поклоняться, почитать

to observe – наблюдать still – до сих пор, все еще

eternal – вечный in the Caucasus – на Кавказе

to burn – гореть to exist – существовать

flame – пламя, огонь remains – остатки

various – различный temple – храм

to regard – рассматривать, right to the end of the 19th century – вплоть до

считать конца 19 столетия


Прослушайте смысловой кусок. Кратко ответьте на вопросы.


Natural combustible gas has been known since ancient times. There is a legend that several thousand years B.C. people observed “eternally buring flames” in various parts of the world. These flames were regarded as manifestations of a supernatural force and were worshipped. In the Caucasus there still exist the remains of a temple. In this temple an eternal flame burned right to the end of the 19th century.


1. Natural combustible gas has been known since ancient times, hasn’t it?

2. Did people observe “eternally buring flames” several thousand years B.C.?

3. Were these flames were regarded as manifestations of a supernatural force?

4. Did people worship buring flames?

5. In the Caucasus there still exist the remains of a temple, don’t they?

6. Did an eternal flame burn in this temple right to the end of the 19th century?


Запомните слова:


To form – образовывать limestone – известняк

decomposition – разложение surround – окружать

to penetrate – проникать rock – порода

crack – трещина side – сторона

bed – слой sandstone – песчаник


Прослушайте смысловой кусок. Из предложенных заголовков выберите правильный вариант.


Natural gases were formed by the decomposition of animal and vegetable remains over a period of many centuries. The gases that accumulated penetrated through cracks into porous beds of sand, sandstone and limestone. In these beds surrounded on all sides by compact rock, they formed natural deposits.


a) The use of natural gas

b) The main components of natural gas

c) The origin of natural gas


Запомните слова:


mysterious – таинственный to ignite – загораться, воспламеняться

nothing but – не что иное, как lightning – молния

to break out (broke, broken) — вырваться to pipe – пускать по трубам

bowels of the earth – недра земли to serve – служить

deposit – месторождение


Прослушайте смысловой кусок. Выберите предложение, наиболее точно передающее содержание прослушанного отрывка.


Nowadays everyone knows that there is nothing mysterious about such flames. “Eternal flames” are nothing but combustible gases. They have broken out of the bowels of the earth into the atmosphere and have been ignited, say, by lightning. People today do not worship such flames. They pipe the natural gas to their cities – to factories and homes. They make it serve their needs.


1. There is nothing mysterious about “eternal flames”.

2. Instead of (вместо) worshipping “eternal flames” people today make them serve their needs.

3. Combustible gases have broken out of the bowels of the earth into the atmosphere and have been ignited.


22. Составьте диалог. Используйте лексику текста, а также известные Вам разговорные формулы.


A.: It is interesting to know if the use of gas is growing fast?

B.: As is known, it certainly is.

A.: What are the reasons, I wonder?


23. Английский юмор:


When did Socrates live?


The teacher asked: “When did Socrates live?” After the silence had become painful, she ordered: “Open your history book. What does it say there?”

Pupil: Socrates, 469 B.C.

Teacher: Now, why didn`t you know when Socrates lived?

Pupil: Well, I though 469 B.C. was his telephone number.


painful – зд. удручающий

B.C. – Before Christ – до нашей эры


* * *

Teacher: John, why are you late?

John: Please, madam, I had to wash my neck and ears, but, honest, it won’t happen again.




Грамматика: 1. Герундий.

2. Причастие II.

3. Инфинитив.

4. Функции глаголов to be, to have в предложении.

Текст The Search for Oil


1. Прочтите вслух следующие слова:

[ ] – evidence, method, develop, investment

[ ] – fracture, balance, gravity

[ ] – discovery, construct, substructure, recover, duster

[ ] – world, search, earth, surface, commercial

[ ] – geologist, geophysicist, geographic, knowledge

[ ] – measure, explosion

[ ] – composition, configuration, exploration, observation

[ ] – location, accumulation, basic, space, operator, great.


2. Прочтите следующие слова, обращая внимание на ударение:

either [ ], generally [ ], knowledge [ ], observation [ ], aware [ ], sufficient [ ], beneath [ ], seismograph [ ], enough [ ], though [ ], technique [ ], magnetometer [ ], perhaps [ ], between [ ], actual [ ].


3. Запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:

search [ ] – поиск, разведка

seek [ ] – искать

evidence [ ] – признак, доказательство

oil seep [ ] – выход нефти на поверхность

up-dip [ ] – вверх по восстанию пласта

seepage [ ] – просачивание

fracture [ ] – разлом, разрыв

discovery [ ] – открытие

locate [ ] – обнаруживать

reservoir [ ] – коллекторская порода

investigation [ ] – исследование

gain [ ] – получать

substructure [ ] – подземная структура

dome [ ] – купол

seep [ ] – выход нефти на поверхность

anticline [ ] – антиклиналь

surface map [ ] – карта поверхности

devise [ ] – изобретать

torsion balance [ ] – париометр, крутильные весы

subsurface structure [ ] – погребенная структура

deduce [ ] — прослеживать

measure [ ] – измерять

transit time [ ] — время пробега

sound wave [ ] — звуковая волна

gravity meter [ ] — гравиметр

magnetometer [ ] – магнитометр

remote sensing [ ] — телеметрия

to be commercially feasible [ ] – быть рентабельным

recover [ ] – получать обратно, возмещать

investment [ ] – инвестиции, капиталовложение

to make a profit [ ] – получать прибыль

assure [ ] – уверять, гарантировать

rich strike [ ] — богатое месторождение

duster [ ] – непродуктивная скважина, скважина, не давшая ни нефти, ни газа.


4. Определите значение интернациональных слов:

observation, construct, geologist, geophysicist, structure, specific, method, globe, reservoir, generate, balance, basic, form, configuration, commercially, technique, actual, composition.


5. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на перевод глаголов «to find» и «to found».

Запомните: to find (found, found) — находить

to found (founded, founded) — основывать

1. The missing expedition has not been found yet. 2. I found it difficult to understand him. 3. St. Petersburg was founded by Peter I in 1703. 4. Peter I founded this city to defend the northern borders of Russia. 5. His theory found no acceptance among scientists. 6. His theory is founded on very superficial (поверхностный, неглубокий) knowledge. 7. Petroleum is generally found in porous sedimentary rocks. 8. The geological party found vast resources of natural gas here last year. 9. Do you know who founded the Moscow University? 10. Before a mineral deposit can be worked, it must first be found.


6. Подберите из правой колонки правильный перевод английских слов и словосочетаний:

1) to look for evidence 1) подземная структура Земли

2) present configuration 2) рентабельный

3) are likely to contain 3) богатое месторождение

4) earth’s substructure 4) непродуктивная скважина

5) remote sensing 5) уменьшают риск

6) oil accumulation 6) современная конфигурация

7) lessen the risk 7) вероятно, содержат

8) commercially feasible 8) получить прибыль

9) make a profit 9) искать признаки

10) rich strike 10) нефтяная залежь

11) duster 11) телеметрия


7. Подберите к глаголам из списка А соответствующие существительные из списка В. Переведите словосочетание на русский язык.

A. 1) to leаt to; 2) to lessen; 3) to construct; 4) to measure; 5) to look for; 6) to gain;

7) to invest; 8) to take; 9) to recover; 10) to make.

B. 1) millions of dollars; 2) maps; 3) investments; 4) a great many steps; 5) a

discovery; 6) the risk; 7) transmit time; 8) a profit; 9) evidence; 10) information.


8. Герундий (Gerund) образуется путем прибавления суффикса –ing к основе глагола. Помните, что в предложении герундий может выполнять все синтаксические функции:

1) в функции подлежащего герундий переводится на русский язык

существительным или инфинитивом:

Reading such books is difficult.

2) герундий может быть частью сказуемого:

а) в функции именной части сказуемого (после глагола-связки to be) он

переводится инфинитивом или существительным:

My favourite occupation is reading.

б) в функции части составного глагольного сказуемого (после глаголов “to

begin”, “to start” – начинать; “to keep on”, “to go on” – продолжать; “ to stop”,

“to give up” –прекращать) переводится инфинитивом или существительным:

The student began translating the text.

3) в функции дополнения (прямого и предложного) герундий переводится

инфинитивом, существительным или придаточным предложением:

He likes listening to music.

He thinks of going to see his parents.

4) в функции определения ( после существительного с предлогом of или for)

он переводится существительным в родительном падеже; инфинитивом или

придаточным предложением:

The problems of getting oil out of the ground are colossal.

5) в функции обстоятельства после предлогов:

“on (upon)”, “after” переводится деепричастием иди существительным с

предлогами «по», «после».

After (on) returning to Moscow he resumed his work.

«by» — деепричастием, сочетанием предлогов «путем», «при помощи» с существительным или придаточным предложением:

He solved the problem by inventing a new kind of plastic.

“in” – деепричастием или существительным с предлогом «при»:

You must be very careful in making such experiments.

“without” – деепричастием с частицей «не» или существительным с предлогом «без»:

It is impossible to know English well without reading books in the original.

Итак, герундий в различных функциях переводится на русский язык существительным ( с предлогом или без предлога), инфинитивом, деепричастием или придаточным предложением. Способ перевода зависит не столько от функции герундия в предложении, сколько от его лексического значения и сочетаемости слов в русском языке.


9. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод герундия в функции:

а) подлежащего:

1. Changing the volume of a substance changes its density. 2. Exploiting the deposit means the extraction of mineral in it. 3. Measuring resistance is necessary in many experiments. 4. Fracturing of the area can also cause secondary porosity. 5. Using automatic control made it possible to increase productivity. 6. Maintaining constant pressure during the test was absolutely necessary. 7. Prospecting is the search for mineral deposits that can be exploited.

б) части сказуемого:

1. The work of these geologists is looking for oil and gas in new areas. 2. Their aim is finding new ways to increase oil production. 3. The search for economically useful mineral deposits is prospecting. 4. They continued testing until the sample was destroyed. 5. Oil production kept rising from the 1950s up to the 1990s.

в) дополнения:

1. As a rule prospecting includes 3 stages: finding evidence of the mineral finding the deposit and exploring the deposit. 2. For making tools man of the Stone Age used only stones. 3. Thank you for coming. 4. The drilling equipment needs repairing. 5. We suggested drilling an exploratory well to prove the existence of oil at the location. 6. The chief engineer spoke of organizing a new laboratory. 7. They succeeded in locating a rich oil accumulation. 8. Our oil engineers have made good progress in drilling wells.

г) определения:

1. There are different ways of discovering underground oil. 2. Porous solids have a great capacity for absorbing gases. 3. The idea of using this technique was new and unexpected. 4. The American program provided for a number of alternative sources of synthetic fuels including ways of converting coal to gas as well as extracting liquid fuel from oil shale. 5. Highly effective serial methods of prospecting from aircraft have come into wide use. 6. He solved the problem of inventing a new device for measuring reservoir pressure.

д) обстоятельства:

1. We can produce heat by burning oil, gas or any other fuels. 2. It is difficult to understand the nature of oil without studying its origin. 3. After finishing the experiment inform the laboratory assistant about its results. 4. Many different factors are taken into consideration in choosing a prospecting method. 5. Organisms, on dying, fall on the bottom of the sea and are buried there. 6. He solved the problem by inventing a new device for measuring reservoir pressure. 7. Some types of deposits were discovered by using data from air photographs. 8. You cannot increase oil production without modernizing drilling equipment.


10. Переведите предложения, определите, каким членом предложения является герундия:

1. Reading English technical magazines is important for an engineer. 2. I remember attending his lectures on chemistry. 3. He remembers having added some water to the mixture. 4. After failing in the examination in January he had to take it again in February. 5. At the meeting they discussed different ways of improving their work. 6. The problem of obtaining power was solved. 7. As it was late she went away without waiting for us.


11. Сочетание герундия с предшествующим ему притяжательным местоимением или существительным в притяжательном или общем падеже называется герундиальным оборотом.

Запомните, что такой оборот обычно переводится придаточным предложением, которое начинается словами «то, что», «что», «о том, что» и т.д. Существительное или притяжательное местоимение, стоящее перед герундием, при переводе на русский язык становится подлежащим придаточного предложения, а герундий – сказуемым этого предложения.

I heard of your friend going abroad.

Я слышал (о том), что ваш друг едет за границу.


12. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод герундиального оборота.

1. He know about our working at this problem. 2. The search for oil begins with geologists and geophysicists using their knowledge of the earth to locate geography areas that contain reservoir rock. 3. Excuse my interrupting you. 4. The professor insisted on our comparing the results of the experiment. 5. We can’t begin this work without the commission approving the plan. 6. Their using the new programme for the computer has improved results of the test. 7. At the lecture on physics the teacher spoke about protons and neutrons being two elementary particles. 8. The rule against visitors entering the laboratory during the experiment is strict.


13. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод герундия и герундиального оборота:

1. The search for oil begins with geologists and geophysicists using their knowledge of the earth to locate geographic areas that are likely to contain reservoir rock. 2. By 1920 it was found that looking for domes, seeps and anticlines on the surface maps was not sufficient. 3. With the seismograph, subsurface structures can be deduced by measuring the transit times of sound waves. 4. Before investing what may be millions of dollars, the operator needs to know if the well will be comercially feasible.


14. Participle II (Причастие II) образуется от III формы нестандартных глаголов. Для стандартных глаглов признаком Причастия II является суффикс -ed. В предложении может выполнять две синтаксические функции:

а) определение

левое правое

(переводится причастием (переводится причастным

на -мый, -ный, тый) определительным оборотом)


the connected tubes the new device made at our plant

a written letter the mixture divided by the experimentor

the given facts the letter written by me

the developed theory


б) обстоятельство (обычно занимает нулевую позицию)


When asked to read the text, Pete did it well.

Watched from the Earth, Mars looke like a red ball.

Heated to 800C, the mixture melted.


Причастие II выполняет две важные грамматические функции, а именно:

а) образует сказуемое во всех временах группы Perfect по формуле to have +

Participle II

The engineer has brought the drawings to the shop.

I have not seen you since October.

We had finished the work by 6 o’clock.


б) образует сказуемое в страдательном залоге с одной из форм

вспомогательного глагола to be по формуле: to be + Participle II

The new method is studied by our group.

He was met by us at the station.

The star is seen only in the morning.

Such pipes will be made by our plant only.


Будьте особенно внимательны при переводе глаголов с суффиксом -ed, т.к. они могут быть сказуемым в форме простого прошедшего времени, а также Причас-

тием II в функции определения.


1. The divided portions of the mixture were put in separate test tubes.

2. The mixture divided by the experimentor was heated in separate tubes.

3. The assistant divided the magnet into two separate pieces.

4. The data obtained helped to study the new substance.


15. Определите функцию Причастия II в предложении, переведите предложения на русский язык.


1. Observation of the seeps has led to the discovery of many of the world’s great oil fields. 2. Once such a “likely area” is found, then more specific tests and investigations are made and the information gained from these is used to construct “maps” of the earth’s substructure. 3. By 1920 it was found that looking for domes, seeps and anticlines on the surface maps was not sufficient. 4. Thus geophysical methods were devised. 5. The first method developed was the torsion balance, followed closely by the seismograph. 6. With the seismograph, subsurface structures can be deduced by measuring the transit times of sound waves generated by an explosion. 7. Other tools developed for use by geophysicists are gravity meters and magnetometers. 8. The basic tool in any search for oil is a knowledge of the earth itself – how it was formed, its composition and its present configuration. 9. Not every well drilled today is assured of a rich strike.


16. Инфинитив (the Infinitive) относится к неличным формам глагола. Называя действие он не указывает ни лица, ни числа, ни наклонения. Формальным признаком инфинитива является частица to, которая в некоторых случаях опускается. К именным свойствам инфинитива относится его способность быть в предложении:

1) подлежащим, 2) частью сказуемого, 3)дополнением, 4)определением, 5)обстоятельством. В функции подлежащего инфинитив переводится на русский язык инфинитивом или существительным.

To build good roads is one of the most important tasks facing our engineers. — Строительство хороших дорог – одна из наиболее важных задач, стоящих перед нашими инженерами.

В функции именной части составного сказуемого инфинитив употребляется в сочетании с глаголом-связкой to be, которая переводится на русский язык словами «являться, заключаться в том чтобы, состоять в том чтобы». Сам инфинитив переводится инфинитивом или существительным.

The object is to provide low pressure. – Цель заключается в том, чтобы создать низкое давление.

В функции дополнения инфинитив переводится на русский язык инфинитивом.

We endeavored to minimize the old disadvantages. – Мы стремились довести до минимума ранее имевшие место недостатки.

Инфинитив или инфинитивная группа, стоящая после сущиствительного, к которому она относится, выступает правым определением к существительному:

The size of the gathering line depends on the volume of crude to be moved, pipeline length and other factors.

Размер сборного трубопровода зависит от объема сырой нефти, который должен быть (будет) перекачен по трубопроводу, и от других факторов.

На русский язык правое определение, выраженное инфинитивом, переводится обычно придаточным предложением с союзом «который». Сказуемое такого предложения переводится глаголом, выражающим долженствование, возможность или глаголом в форме будущего времени.

Инфинитив – обстоятельство цели.

Отвечает на вопросы «для какой цели?», «для чего?» и на русский язык переводится неопределенной формой глагола с союзом «для того, чтобы (чтобы)» или существительным с предлогом «для». Инфинитив – обстоятельство цели может стоять в начале предложения перед подлежащим или ближе к концу предложения (после сказуемого или дополнения).


To accelerate the gas a high 1. Чтобы достичь высоких скоростей дви-

pressure is needed in the pipeline. жения газа, необходимо высокое давления

в трубопроводе.

2. Для достижения … .


We use ammeter to measure the 1. Мы используем амперметр для того,

current. чтобы измерить силу тока.

2. … для измерения силы тока.


17. Определите функцию инфинитива в предложении, переведите предложения на русский язык.


1. When man first began to seek petroleum, the easiest way to find it was to look for evidence of oil seeps on the earth’s surface. 2. The search for oil begins with geologists and geophysicists using their knowledge of the earth to locate geographic areas that are likely to contain reservoir rock. 3. The information gained from these is used to construct “maps” of the earth’s substructure.


18. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные значения глагола «to be».

Запомните: глагол «to be» может быть:

1) смысловым глаголом со значениями «быть», «является», «находится»;

2) эквивалентом модального глагола «must» (to be to + инфинитив) со значением «должен» (по договоренности или плану);

3) глаголом-связкой (to be to + инфинитив) со значением «заключаться в том, чтобы», «состоять в том, чтобы», в том случае, если подлежащее выражено существительным типа «task», «question», «problem», «duty», «aim»;

4) вспомогательным глаголом, служащим для образования:

а) времен группы Continuous (to be + Participle I);

б) страдательного залога (to be + Participle II).

1. Most substances are complex in composition. 2. The conference is to open in a few days. 3. The aim of the conference is to discuss the problem of new energy sources. 4. He is making progress in mathematics. 5. The task of higher school is to educate highly-qualified specialists. 6. Coal, oil and natural gas are used as fuel. 7. Every worker is to know safety rules. 8. Gypsum is formed through sedimentation of mineral substances dissolved in water. 9. Thus, gypsum is a chemical sediment. 10. Now the students of our group are studying physical geology which deals with the chemical composition, crystal form and the origin of minerals. 11. They are in the laboratory now.


19. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различные значения глагола «to have».

Запомните: глагол «to have» может быть:

1) смысловым глаголом со значением «иметь»;

2) эквивалентом модального глагола «must» (to have to + инфинитив) со значением «должен» (в силу определенных обстоятельств), «нужно», «приходится»;

3) вспомогательным глаголом, служащим для образования времен группы Perfect (to have + Participle II).

1. We have many laboratories at our Institute. 2. We shall have a five minutes’ break now. 3. Have you answered all the questions? 4. Our scientists have to solve many complicated problems. 5. The students of our group have already studied petrography dealing with the structure, texture and composition of rocks. 6. She doesn’t have to go to the library. I’ll give her the book she needs. 7. The research workers had made a lot of experiments before they got the necessary results. 8. You will have to try to do it again. 9. I had a lot of work to do last night.


20. Определите, являются ли глаголы «to be» и «to have» смысловым, вспомогательным глаголом, глаголом-связкой или эквивалентом модального глагола. Переведите предложения.

1. We shall be waiting for you at the bus-stop at 5 o’clock. 2. At this signal, the operator is to start the machine. 3. The building of the new school will be finished next month. 4. The students were carrying the experiment for some hours. 5. Our task was to define the speed of the reaction. 6. We are to have a short break at about 2 o’clock. 7. The report which is to be made by this scientist is of great importance for our future work. 8. They have already passed their exams. 9. We did not have to ask the teacher any questions, we could do the work ourselves. 10. After the laboratory assistant had brought all the necessary diagrams, the lecture began. 11. To remember the new words you have to read them aloud. 12. New gas provinces have been discovered in the northern part of the Tyumen region.

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