Лекция: The trade winds
The trades (or tropical easterlies) are important because of the great extent of their activity; they blow over nearly half the globe. They originate at low latitudes on the margins of the subtropical high-pressure cells, and their constancy of direction and speed (about 7 ms -1) is remarkable. Trade winds, like the westerlies, are strongest during the winter half-year, which suggests they are both controlled by the same fundamental mechanism.
The two trade wind systems tend to converge in the Equatorial Trough (of low pressure). Over the oceans, particularly the central Pacific, the convergence of these air streams is often pronounced and in this sector the term Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is applicable. Generally, however, the convergence is discontinuous in space and time. Equatorward of the main belts of the trades over the eastern Pacific and eastern Atlantic are regions of light, variable winds, known traditionally as the doldrums and much feared in past centuries by the crews of sailing ships. Their seasonal extent varies considerably: from July to September they spread westward into the central Pacific while in the Atlantic they extend to the coast of Brazil. A third major doldrum zone is located in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific. In March-April it stretches 16,000 km from East Africa to 180° longitude and it is again very extensive during October-December.