Реферат: Ричард Бах

Министерство общего и профессиональногообразования



Правовой Лицей имени Е. Р. Кастелягорода Екатеринбурга.

Образовательная область:          Филология.

Предмет:                                          Английский язык. 

Тема:                                               “I preserve his future, hepreserves

my past.” (R. Bach). We allare from the childhood.       

Исполнитель:                                 Ученица 10 «Б» класса

Фамилия И. О.:                              Калашникова С. И.

Научный руководитель:              Воронова М.В.


                                17 февраля 2001 года


“I preserve his future, he preserves my past” (R. Bach).

                We all are fromthe childhood.

1. Introduction (part1)………………………………………………3

2. Part 2…………………………………………………………5

3. Conclusion (part3)…………………………………………14

4. The list of literature………………………………………..17

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Introduction (Part 1)

      Everybodywants to know what is happening around him or her? We hear about criminals,children’s creams and strange behaviour? If analyse the last ten news-programmes, we’llunderstand than the kid’s problems stays on the same level with news about gasor oil. The children’s problems are the most interesting and important one forthe majority of psychologists.  They tries tounderstand everything what  is connectedwith children, because everybody believes that we can change a kid, but we cannot do the same with a man. Frankly speaking I disagree with this statement. Isit means that a person can not understand and solve all his problems? I think,that everybody does not believe in this.  

      Really, nowadays everyone is surround bya great number of problems. Some of them are really easy, and we don’t need anyhelp in their solving. However, life is not so primitive, the majority ofsituations are really strange. If we want to cope with such difficulties, wemust understand the roots of them.  Wewill never be good at chemistry, physics and math without knowing the basicrules and laws. The same is with the roots of human behaviour. We can not learnabout men’s conduct in different situations, else we’ll be able to claimantpeople’s stresses and predict human reaction (it can be very useful from thecriminal side). Or, may be, we can ..!

      There are a lot of points of view on aproblem, where the origin of this or that conduct is. Freud came to believethat all the roots of possible complicates are laying in the sexual life of aperson, Bacon found them in the inward life, in men’s ghosts and idols. A greatgroup of people believes  in mysticpower, which controls people’s existents. It means that everything has its ownbeginning. If we know the origins, we will be able to give a right estimationto the situation and, of course, to react in a proper way. But, if we can learnabout math rules from the special books, we can’t do the same, if we want tofind a local answer to the question:” where are the roots of human behaviourand reaction? Of course, there are a lot of theories and conclusions, which areconnected with our topic.  Nevertheless,the majority of them touch upon a question about the childhood in any case.They are confident that all information about our future life (precondition) weget in an early age, that our problems are connected with childhood and theroots of good and evil are not in the genes as commonly believe, but in theearliest days of life. This idea is rather new and conflicting, but verypopular and under discussion. In this case it will not be only interesting butgreatly important to learn such material inside out, and define at last, is ita solid theory, because, if it is, we’ll be able to understand and claimant theimpediments after memorising our past. This problem is really dillicate. For itsolution, we should work with an enormous quantity theories of differentthinkers (like Freud or Birn) and writers (like Bachand Coalio). The main idea is that the majority ofconclusions belong to the pen of European scientists. Considering theimportance of this question, it is easy to understand that it’s necessary towork with English writing material, because different reports can give usinexact information, and make incorrect opinion of situation. For this reason,my paper is in English.  I think, it  is not very difficult to understand  the aim of this work, of  course. It consistsof consolidation the theories about the questions that  all our problemsare from childhood, analysis of this material and  response to the   issue of  correctness of theseideas. 


Part 2

      Human infants seem so weak and helpless at birth that it is hard tobelieve they are capable of much interaction with their environment. In fact,not too long ago many people still wondered whether new-born could even see orhear at all. In the last several decades, however, research on the new-born hasexpanded greatly, and a very different view has emerged.   We now know that human infants are born withsensory systems that are impressively able. They process information and learnabout their surroundings from the very moment of birth. They learn the worldand try to understand how to survive in it. Children acquire an enormous amountof information in the twelve years of live. For Piaget’s mind  “tothis age the personality is “shaped””. <span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">[1]

    Everything what children have learned during this years stays in thesubconscious. Of course, people cannot remember the experience of such earlyage, but they use it, calling — intuition (instinct) or presentiment. So, ourreactions and deeds “depend on what wehad put in our mind” <span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">[2]Lotsof psychologists, the  main of them isFreud, “came to believe that currentproblems can often be traced back to childhood experiences.” <span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">[3]

“Unfortunately, theseearly experiences are not usually available to consciousness. Only throughgreat effort can they be coaxed into active memory,” <span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">[4]–

said Freud to this problem.

       The ability to memorise depends on the development of brains. And, ineach term, the abilities  a person’sbrain can develop depend on experiences in the first three years of life, thechildhood. Studies on abandoned and severely maltreated Romanian children, as an  example, revealed striking lesions in certainareas of the brain. The repeated traumatization has led to an increased releaseof stress hormones which have  attackedthe sensitive tissue of the brain and destroyed the new, already build-upneurones. The areas of their brains responsible for the “management” of theiremotions are 20-30% smaller than in other children of the same age. Obviously,all children (not only Romanian) who suffer such abandonment and maltreatmentwill be damaged in this way.

         The attitude to the children always has itsresults. An American writer Alice Millir tried to understand, why some people(Hitler, Stalin, Mao and common one’s) are so aggressive. She wrote:” I foundit logical that  a child beaten oftenand  deprived of  loving physical contact would quickly pick upthe language of violence. For him this language became the only effective meansof communication available. However, when I began to illustrate my thesis bydrawing on the examples of Hitler, Stalin, Mao, Ceacescu, when I tried toexpose the social consequences of child maltreatment, I first encounteredstrong resistance. Repeatedly I was told,” I, too, was a battered child, butthat did not make me a criminal. When I asked these people for details about theirchildhood, I was always told of a person who made the difference, a sibling, ateacher, a neighbour, just somebody who liked or even loved them but, at leastin most cases, was unable to protect them. Yet through his presence this persongave the child a notion of trust and love. I call these persons “helpingwitnesses”.”<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[5]  So, we see that these people becameaggressive  because they lack loveand  protection in the  childhood. It means that we depend not  only  from our common surrounding, but from “the people  from the past” <span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">[6]

Ifa person lacked protection  in thechildhood, he  will feel  himself uncomfortable and “even in a great horror” <span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">[7]inthe company

of people, he’ll want to protect himself andthat’s why his reaction too

ordinary things  will be rude. Many havealso been lucky enough to find

“enlightened”and courageous “witnesses”, people who helped them to recognise the injusticesthey suffered, the significance the hurtful treatment had for them, and itsinfluences on their whole life. They may even suffer much in their life, maybecome drug addicted, and have relationship problems, but thanks to the fewgood experience in their childhood usually do not become criminals. “The criminal outcome seems to be connectedwith a childhood  that didn’t provide anyhelping witness, that was a place of constant threat and fear,”- <span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">[8]Millerthought.

        The parents attitude tothe kid finds its mirroring in his future personality  and behaviour. It has been observed again andagain that parents who tend to maltreat and neglect their children do it inways which resemble the treatment they endured in their own childhood, withoutany conscious memory of their early experiences. Fathers who sexually abusetheir children are usually unaware of the fact that they had themselvessuffered the same abuse. It is rather in therapy, even if ordered by thecourts, that they can discover, sometimes stupefied, their own history. Andrealise thereby that for years they have attempted to act out their ownscenario, just to get rid of it. The majority of psychologists believe that theexplanation of this fact is that “informationabout the cruelty suffered during childhood remains stored in the brain in theform of unconscious memories. For a child, conscious experience of suchtreatment is impossible. If children are not to break down completely under thepain and the fear, they must repress that knowledge.<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;layout-grid-mode:line">[9]”  But the unconscious memories of the child whohas been neglected and maltreated, even before he has learned to speak, drivethe adult to reproduce those repressed scenes over and over again in theattempt to liberate himself from the fears that cruelty has left with him. Forexample, The German reformer Martin Luther was an intelligent and educated man,but he hated all Jews and he encouraged parents to beat their children. He wasno perverted sadist like Hitler's executioners. But 400 years before Hitler hewas disseminating this kind of destructive counsel. According to Eric Ericson'sbiography, Luther's mother beat him severely even before he was treated thisway by his father and his teacher. He believed this punishment had «donehim good» and was therefore justified. The conviction stored in his bodythat if parents do it then it must be right. This  example shows, nothing thata child learns later about morality at home, in school or in church will everhave the same strong and long lasting effect as the treatment inflicted on hisor her body in the first few days, weeks and months. “The lesson learned in the first three years cannot be expunged,” –<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;layout-grid-mode:line">[10]

said Freud.   So we can see thatif  a child learns from birth thattormenting and punishing an innocent creature is the right thing to do, andthat the child's suffering must not be acknowledged, that message will alwaysbe stronger than intellectual knowledge acquired at a later stage.  Alice Miller made really great research work and her conclusions give us, at last, the hole picture of  this situation:“ Usually away from home either praying in church orrunning the priest's household. Stalin idealized his parents right up to theend of his life and was constantly haunted by the fear of dangers, dangers thathad long since ceased to exist In the lives of all the tyrants I analyzed, Ialso found without exception paranoid trains of thought bound up with theirbiographies in early childhood and the repression of the experiences they hadbeen through. Mao had been regularly whipped by his father and later sent 30million people to their deaths but he hardly ever admitted the full extent ofthe rage he must have felt for his own father, a very severe teacher who hadtried through beatings to «make a man» out of his son. Stalin causedmillions to suffer and die because even at the height of his power his actionswere determined by unconscious, infantile fear of powerlessness. Apparently hisfather, a poor cobbler from Georgia, attempted to drown his frustration withliquor and whipped his son almost every day. His mother displayed psychotictraits, was completely incapable of defending her son and was but were stillpresent in his deranged mind. His fear didn't even stop after he had been lovedand admired by millions.”    <span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">[11]

       But, what happen with people who were loved in their childhood? Theyhave a better live without violent and horror. There are people who grow up with loving  and protecting parents who “can later find a kind, sympathetic partner,can organize their life and become  goodparents”, even “if they have to gothrough the horror of a concentration camp during their adolescence” <span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">[12]  after learning about Pablo Picasso  we can mention the severe trauma that thechild Pablo Picasso underwent at the age of three: the earthquake in Malaga in1884, the flight from the family's apartment into a cave that seemed to be moresafe, and eventually witnessing the birth of his sister in the same cave underthese very scary circumstances. However, Picasso survived these traumas withoutlater becoming psychotic or criminal because he was protected by his veryloving parents. They were able to give him what he most needed in this chaoticsituation: empathy, compassion, protection and the feeling of being safe intheir arms.

      Thanks to the presence of his parents, the two enlightened witnesses ofhis fear and pain, not only during the earthquake but also throughout his wholechildhood, he was later able to express his early, frightening experiences in acreative way. In Picasso's famous painting «Guernica» we can see whatmight have happened in the mind of the three-year-old child while he waswatching the dying people and horses and listening to the children screamingfor help on the long walk to the shelter. Small children can go unscared eventhrough bomb-raids if they feel safe in the arms of their parents.

       Itis much more difficult for a child to overcome early traumatizations if theyare caused by their own parents. Here we have an another example. I analysedthe childhood of the writer Franz Kafka. I’ll try to show that the nightmareshe describes in his stories recount exactly what might have happened to thesmall, severely neglected infant Kafka. He was born into a family in which hemust have felt like the hero of TheCastle (ordered about but not needed and constantly misled) or like K. in The Trial (charged with incomprehensibleguilt) or like The Hunger Artist whonever found the food he was so strongly longing for. Thanks to the love and thedeep comprehension of his sister Otla in his puberty, his late «helpingwitness,» Kafka could eventually give expression to his suffering inwriting. Does it mean that he therefore overcame his traumatic childhood? Hecould indeed write his work, full of knowledge and wisdom, but why did he dieso early—in his thirties—of tuberculosis? It happened in a time when he knewmany people who loved and admired him. However, these good experiences couldnot erase the unconscious emotions and memories stored in his body.

        Kafka was hardly aware of the fact that the main sources ofhis imagination were deeply hidden in his early childhood. Most writers aren't.But the amnesia of an artist or writer, though sometimes a burden for theirbody, doesn't have any negative consequences for society. The readers simplyadmire the work and are rarely interested in the writers' infancy. However,the amnesia of politicians or leaders of sects does afflict countless people,and will continue to do so, as long as society remains blind to the importantconnections between the denial of traumatic experiences in early childhood andthe destructive, criminal actions of individuals.

       AnAmerican writer, Richard Bach, is well knowing by his Fantasy andPhilosophy.  He solves difficultproblems, which are connected with “Human  psychology”. He does not have specialeducation, Richard is only a pilot (in any case, he was…before he began towrite). His first book was “Sea-gull”, than “breach through the eternity”,“One”, “Plane” etc. In this stories and novels Bach taught upon lots ofdifferent topics, and one of them is about childhood. This man deadly believethat a person cannot live without his past. And what do we have there, in thepast? Of course, childhood! This topic glassed in one of the latest work:“Running from the safety”. The main idea of the plot is that “Richard-men” <span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">[13](he prefers to write about himself rather then to work with heroes) meat “Richard-kid”.It means that he, the old one, meat in his own world a little boy of  eight years old. This boy is “HE”, but from the past. In this novelRichard Bach tried to answer the the question: ”What will you do if you meat yourself-from-the-past?” The owncorrect response he has  able to find is “to learn everything what you can from thiskid”. What can you learn from the little child from your past? What he cangive us?  This questions canappeared  in the mind of everybody… in “Running…” Bach neatly respond to them: “he remembers all what I have forgot”Really, we have spoken about this already, all information which people get in an early age cannot be rememberedfurther. But  kids retain all this, causeit still in their active memory. Some people had critical moments in theirchildhood, which influence  their lifes,but they cannot remember this episode – the most impotent one – and that’s whycannot change the situation. For example, a man is a looser all his live. Hecannot do anything with this. Why? After memorising his childhood, heremembered that he was whipped by schoolboys and after this all the school waslaughing at him…He understood everything and tried to change the attitude tothis situation at last we won for first time. Richard Bach had such criticalmoments too. At first, the death of his brother and his climbing to thewater-tower. After this he understood that he was not a little boy, and  “leftthe family  and common world” afterthis moment he decided to become a pilot and “made the biggest fault” in the live: went to the army. Why  he did it? For what he left the family? Whyhis behaviour was such as it was? Richard cannot  understand. But after the talk with Dickey(Little Bach) he was able to explain all this to himself and “ the desert” – Dickey’s world – “converted in a field of green grass”. At first Richard was notable to “survive in the dark of the mind”.But Dickey was able to return to Bach “thepart of  himself”, and he did it. Nowhe could be “ out of space and time”.Telling things about the live and answering to Dickey’s questions, Bach foundlots of responses for his own issues. “Dickeyknows everything about the childhood, and I knows everything about one of hisFutures”, — told Richard  to hiswife.  So, the boy  could find all the answers in several months,and spare 50 years of had learning the live. The man remembered the half of hislife and understood the roots of all the problems

. And both  took that they could not live without eachother. “I preserve his future, hepreserves my past”, — said Richard Bach and he was absolutely right.

Conclusion (Part 3).       

So, we can see that the question about theChildhood is really important. It found the glass in many spheres of human lifeand men’s deeds. It is not a science theory, but a reality. We know that everycow is an animal doesn't include the statement that every animal is a cow. Ithas been proved that many adults have had the good fortune to break the cycleof abuse. Yet I can certainly aver that I have never come across persecutorswho weren't themselves victims in their childhood, though most of them don'tknow it because their feelings are repressed. The less these criminals know aboutthemselves, the more dangerous they are to society. So I think it is crucial tograsp the difference between the statement, «every victim becomes apersecutor,» which is wrong, and the statement, «every persecutor wasa victim in his childhood,» which I consider true. The problem is that,feeling nothing, he remembers nothing, realises nothing, and this is whysurveys don't always reveal the truth. Yet the presence of a warm, enlightenedwitness… therapist, social worker, lawyer, judge… can help the criminalunlock his repressed feelings and restore the unrestricted flow ofconsciousness. This can initiate the process of escape from the vicious circleof amnesia and violence. Working toward a better future cannot be done withoutlegislation that clearly forbids corporal punishment toward children and makessociety aware of the fact that children are people too. The whole society andits legal system can then play the role of a reliable, enlightened andprotecting witness for children at risk, children of adolescent, drug addictedcriminals who may themselves become predators without such assistance. The onlyreason why a parent might smack his children is the parent's own history. Allother so-called reasons, such as poverty and unemployment, are puremystification. There are unemployed parents who don't spank their children andthere are many wealthy parents who maltreat their children in the most cruelway and teach them to minimise the terror by calling it the right education.With a law prohibiting corporal punishment towards children, people of the nextgeneration will not have recorded the highly misleading information in theirbrain, an almost irreversible damage. They will be able to have empathy with achild and understand what has been done to children over millennia. It is arealistic hope to think that then (and only then) the human mind and behaviourwill change. With a law that forbids spanking every citizen becomes anenlightened witness.

So, we see that everything lays in ourselves.It is easy to understand that people can change everything around themselves.The theory about personal children problems is really correct. Now everybodycan just analyse his past and remember the main idea of his last deeds. Theywill help him to solve the difficulties. It is the easiest way to survive inyour own inside world, which can be a bright one. But the main problem is thatnot everybody knows about this theory, and especially such people can not behappy and live an easy life else the whole world can be changed. People willunderstand all their problems and (it is important) now how to behave and solveall the difficulties. It means – no depress, mad people and their deaths, goodsocial situation, at last. To my mind we should try to use this material,because it can help us and it will be so easy to understand each other and, atthe first term, ourselves, is not it?

The list of literature

1. “People, who play in games”       A. Birn

2. “Psychology”                                CamilleB. Wortman

                                                          Elizabeth F. Loftus

3.“The Childhood Trauma”           AliseMiller

4. “Running from Safty”                   R. Bach

5. “Interpretation of dreams”             S. Freud

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The list of literature. The 2nd  book.

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The list of literature.  The 1st  book.

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The list of literature.   The 2nd book

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The list of literature. The 5th  book.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:RU;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[5]

The list of literature. The 3rdbook.

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The list of literature. The 1stbook.

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The list of literature. The 3rdbook.

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The list of literature. The 3rdbook.

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The list of literature. The 2ndbook.

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The list of literature. The 5thbook.

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The list of literature. The 3rdbook.

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The list of literature. The 3rdbook.

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The list of literature. The 4thbook. Other     quotes are from this book.
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