Реферат: Зачетные темы по английскому языку для школы

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Great Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>

“<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Great Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>”has several different names. Some people say “<st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:country-region>”,or “the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>United Kingdom</st1:country-region>”, orjust “<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>UK</st1:place></st1:country-region>”.There are four different countries in the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>United Kingdom</st1:country-region>: <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>England</st1:country-region>,<st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:country-region> and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

Altogether morethan 56 million people live in Britain, many of them in big industrial citieslike London, Liverpool and Manchester, but people are often surprised by howmuch of Britain is open country, with lonely hills and woods, quiet rivers,lakes and farmlands.

Many peoplethink that the weather is cold and wet in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region> all the year round. But itisn’t! True, it sometimes rains and even snows for days and days, but everyyear there are weeks of beautiful sunny weather then the British take off theirsweaters and go out to sunbathe.

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>is only a small country, but every part is different. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region> is aland of mountains, lakes and romantic castles. The winters are cold, withplenty of snow, but the summers are often warm and sunny. Most farmers keepsheep, and they’re many small factories, which make fine sweaters from theirwool. In some parts of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region>,there are very few people. Deer live in the hills, and the rivers are full ofsalmon. But Glasgow and Edinburgh are both large and busy, with all that isgood (and bad) in modern cities.

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Northern Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>has it problems, but it has beauty, too. In the warm, wet climate,the grass grows a brilliant green, and much of the land is farming country. <st1:City w:st=«on»>Belfast</st1:City> is a large industrial city with many finebuildings and big port from which ships come and go to <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:country-region> and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>. But <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Belfast</st1:place></st1:City> has had many difficulty years, and itis not the busy place it once was.

A hundred yearsago the north of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>was industrial heart of the country. From the factories came cloth, wool,machines, engines and china. The old factories came have gone now and theworkers have to look for jobs in the new “high-tech” industries. Outside thetowns, much of this part of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>is beautiful countryside, with green hills, lakes and sandy beaches. Fishing isstill a big industry in the North East, and every night (except Sunday) thefishing boats go out to sea.

The centre of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>England</st1:country-region> (the “Midlands”) is also an importantindustrial area, especially near the huge cities of <st1:City w:st=«on»>Coventry</st1:City>and <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Birmingham</st1:place></st1:City>,the centre of the car industry. But everyone, even in the heart of the moderncity, there are buildings from older <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region> – cathedrals, castles, andhouses built hundred years ago.

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:place></st1:country-region>is a special place, a country of high mountains and pretty valleys.But <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:place></st1:country-region>has plenty of industry, too, with many factories and coal mines.

The west of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region> is richfarming country. It produces milk, cream, butter, cheese and apples, which goto make cider, a popular drink. In the villages, country people often growtheir own fruit, vegetables and flowers.

Some areas of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region> arevery crowded. Around <st1:City w:st=«on»>Manchester</st1:City>, in <st1:State w:st=«on»>north west</st1:State> <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>England</st1:country-region>,and <st1:City w:st=«on»>Glasgow</st1:City>, in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region>, are large city areas ofhouses and factories. The south east of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>England</st1:country-region>,too, has many towns and cities, including <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>,the giant capital. But quiet near <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>there are still some quiet villages and peaceful farms.

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>is an island, of course, and you are never far from the sea. Someof the coast, especially in the west, is wild and rocky, with small, sandybeaches, and romantic old harbours. Other parts are industrial. The East Coastof Scotland, for example, is busy with oil rings and fishing boats. The mostpopular beaches are near the many holiday towns on the south coast, where theweather is usually warmer. It is here that Londoners come to relax.

<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>

<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>has been a capital city for nearly a thousand years, and many ofits ancient buildings still stand. The most famous of these are the <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Tower</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>London</st1:PlaceName>(where the Crown Jewels are kept), Westminster Abbey and St. Pals Cathedral,but most visitors also want to see the House of Parliament, <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Buckingham</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Palace</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>and the many magnificent museums.

Once, <st1:City w:st=«on»>London</st1:City> was a small Roman town on the north bank of the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Thames</st1:place>, but slowly it grew into one of the world’s majorcities with more than seven million people. Fewer people live in the centrenow, but the suburbs are still growing.

Places now inthe heart of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>once stood in the middle of green fields. Many small villages, like Hampstead, <st1:City w:st=«on»>Chelsea</st1:City> and Mayfair, became part of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>, but they still keep some of their oldatmosphere. Different areas of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>seem like different cities. The <st1:place w:st=«on»>West End</st1:place> is arich man’s world of shops, offices and theatres. The old port area is nowcalled “Docklands”. The great ships have gone, and the area is changing veryfast. There are huge new office buildings, and thousands of new flats andhouses.

Other parts of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City> are changing, too.Some of the poor areas have become fashionable, and people with money aremoving into them.

A hundred yearsago, the river was crowded by ships, leaving for Java and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Japan</st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>New Zealand</st1:country-region>and <st1:State w:st=«on»>New York</st1:State>, but now people travel by air,and <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>’smain airport, Heathrow, is one of the busiest in the world.

Like all bigcities, <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>has streets and concrete buildings, but it also has many big parks, full oftrees, flowers and grass. Sit on the grass (you’re allowed to!) in the middleof Hyde Park or <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Kensington</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Gardens</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>, and you willthink that you’re in the country, miles away.

Many people liveoutside the centre of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>in the suburbs, and they travel to work, in the shops and offices by train, busor underground. The trains are full – and expensive – and the roads are crowdedwith cars, but every day a million people come from far out of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>, even from the coast, and spend up tofour hours travelling every day.

Most people workfrom 9 am to 5 pm. From 8 till 10 every morning, and 4.30 to 6.30 everyevening, the trains are crowded with people, and after the morning “rush hour”the shoppers come.

By the day the wholeof <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City> isbusy. At night, the offices are quiet and empty, but the <st1:place w:st=«on»>West End</st1:place> stays alive, because this is where Londoners come to enjoythemselves. There are two opera houses here, several concert halls and manytheatres, as well as cinemas, and in nearby <st1:place w:st=«on»>Soho</st1:place>the pubs, restaurants and nightclubs are busy half the night.

Many peoplethink that <st1:City w:st=«on»>London</st1:City> is all grey but in fact red idthe <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>’sfavourite colour. The buses are red, the letterboxes are red and the mail vansare all bright, bright red. <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>is at its best when people are celebrating. Then the flags, the soldiers’uniforms the cheering crowds and the carriages and horses all sparkle in thesunshine – if it’s not raining, of course!

Travellingby train.

Modern life isimpossible without travelling. Of course the fastestway of travelling is by plane. But many people maketheir choice on travelling by train as with a trainyou have speed, comfort and pleasure combined. Travellingby train is of course slower than by air but it also has its advantages.

If you are going to travel by trainyou’d better book seats beforehand because many people are fond of travelling by train. There are some reasons why peoplechoose railroad. Train is the cheap means of travelling.If it is summer outside it will be better to think of your trip before thevocation starts. To understand how true this is, you only have to go to arailway station. There you will see hundreds of people hurrying to catch atrain. You’ll waste a lot of time standing near the booking-office trying tobuy a ticket.

Modern trains have very comfortableseats in all passenger cars, and there are sleeping-cars and dining-cars whichmake even the longest journey enjoyable. You can buy first-class, second-classand third-class sleepers in a separate compartment. If you are early before thetrain starts you can leave your suit-cases in the compartment and walk up anddown the platform. Some people forget when and from which platform and tracktheir train will be off. They can always ask for the track, platform and trainnumbers at the railroad station information bureau and also get informationabout next trains and their schedules. There are express, slow andlong-distance trains. If you want to go somewhere and get there as quickly aspossible you’d better know that express trains only stop at the largeststations while slow trains stop at all stations. You can get to far countriesonly by a long-distance train.

Once you are in your compartment youhave to ask the guide to bring in the bedding. There are usually two lower andtwo upper berths in a third-class sleeper compartment. Some people like tooccupy upper berths because it is more convenient and exciting to travel.During your way on the train you can read newspapers, books, look out of thewindow, drink the tea, communicate with your neighbors or sleep. I prefer tolook out of the window, because you can see the country you are passingthrough, and not only the clouds as when you are flying. You can have somethingto eat at the stations when the train makes stops.

Though we all seem to agree that thefuture belongs to air transport, the railroads today still carry a lot ofpassengers and goods.

Travellingby Air.

Modern life isimpossible without travelling. Of course the fastestway of travelling is by plane. Many people prefer travelling by air as it is the most convenient, comfortableand quickest means of travelling. Travellingby plane has also its advantages and disadvantages.

If you are going to travel by airyou’d better buy tickets beforehand because many people are fond of travelling by plane. There are some reasons why peoplechoose that means of travelling. If it is summeroutside it will be better to think of your trip before the vocation starts. Tounderstand how true this is, you only have to go to an airport. There you willsee hundreds of people hurrying to catch a plane. You’ll waste a lot of timestanding near the booking office trying to buy a ticket.

Modern planes have very comfortableseats in all cabins, and there are first class, business and economy classcabins. Inside the cabin the air is always fresh and warm. Before the planetakes off the stewardess helps everyone get comfortable in the seats and wishesthem a pleasant trip. She also gives all the information about the flight, thespeed and the altitude. During the flight you can have something to drink andto eat. You can read newspapers and magazines or simply look out of thepothole. But you will sea nothing outside but the clouds. You can buyfirst-class, second-class and third class. You must be in time for your flightbecause you must have time to pass custom and passport controls and check in.Before boarding the plane the passenger must register at the airport. Whileregistering he is required to have his luggage weighed. If the luggage weighsmore than <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«20 kilograms» w:st=«on»>20 kilograms</st1:metricconverter>you have to pay extra.  Sometimes peopleforget the time and the number of the flight. They can always ask for that atthe airport’s information bureau and also get information about next flightsand their timetables.

Sometimes passengers don’t feel asif they are walking on good solid ground when on board the plane. They can getairsick and then travelling by air becomes a realtorture for them.

Nowadays travellingby air is one of the dangerous means of travelling.There are a lot of air crashes and many people die in them. And I think peopleprefer safety to comfort on board a ship.

Though we all seem to agree that thefuture belongs to air transport, other means of travellingare still popular today.


<st1:place w:st=«on»>Holiday</st1:place>isaday set apart for religious observance or for thecommemoration of some extraordinary event or distinguished person, or for someother public occasion.

National holidays aredays set aside by official government proclamation to celebrate differentoccasions.

The <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>U.S.</st1:place></st1:country-region> has nonational holidays. Legal holidays – days on which banks, schools, or otherpublic institutions and most places of business are closed.

Memorial Day is alegalholiday, observed annually on the last Monday in May in most of the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region>,It honours the nation's armed services killed in wartime. The holiday,originally called Decoration Day, is traditionally marked by parades, memorialspeeches and ceremonies, and the decoration of graves with flowers and flags.Memorial Day was first observed on May 30, 1868, on the order of General JohnAlexander Logan for the purpose of decorating the graves of the American CivilWar dead. It was observed on May 30 until 1971, when most states changed to anewly established federal schedule of holiday observance.

Independence Day is an annual holiday commemorating the formaladoption by the Continental Congress of the Declaration of Independence on July4, <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«1776, in» w:st=«on»>1776, in</st1:metricconverter><st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Philadelphia</st1:place></st1:City>.Although the signing of the Declaration was not completed until August, theFourth of July holiday has been accepted as the official anniversary of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>United States</st1:country-region> independence and is celebrated inall states and territories of the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>U.S.</st1:place></st1:country-region>

The Fourth of July istraditionally celebrated publicly with parades and pageants, patrioticspeeches, and organised firing of guns and cannons and displays of fireworks.Family picnics and outings are a feature of private Fourth of Julycelebrations.

Thanksgiving Day,a legalholiday in the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>U.S.</st1:country-region>, wasfirst celebrated in early colonial times in <st1:place w:st=«on»>New England</st1:place>.The actual origin is probably the harvest festivals that are traditional inmany parts of the world. After the first harvest was completed by the <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Plymouth</st1:place></st1:City> colonists in1621, Governor William Bradford proclaimed a day of thanksgiving.

In 1863 PresidentAbraham Lincoln appointed a day of thanksgiving, and since then each presidenthas issued a Thanksgiving Day proclamation, generally designating the fourthThursday of November as a holiday.

New Year's Day is the first day of the year, January <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«1 in» w:st=«on»>1 in</st1:metricconverter> the Gregorian calendar.In the Middle Ages most European countries used the Julian calendar andobserved New Year's Day on March 25, called Annunciation Day and celebrated asthe birth to the Son of God. With the introduction of the Gregorian calendar in1582, Roman Catholic countries began to celebrate New Year's Day on January 1.

The custom of visitingfriends, relatives and neighbours on New Year’s Day is one of the Old Worldtraditions that has taken on a new form in the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region>. A favourite place tosee the old year out is <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>New York City</st1:place></st1:City>’sTime Square.

Christmas is an annual festival, held on December 25, to celebratethe Nativity, or birth of Christ. The Christmas tree, an evergreen trimmed withlights and other decorations, is derived from the so-called paradise tree,symbolising <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Eden</st1:place></st1:City>.

Saint Valentine's Day,a holidayhonouring lovers, is celebrated on February 14. There is a custom of sendinggreeting cards or gifts to express affection. The cards, known as valentines,are often designed with hearts to symbolise love. The holiday probably derivesfrom the ancient Roman feast of Lupercalis (February15). The festival gradually became associated with the feast day (February 14)of two Roman martyrs, both named St. Valentine, who lived in the 3rd century.St. Valentine has traditionally been regarded as the patron saint of lovers.

<st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:place></st1:State>

<st1:State w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:State>is the capital cityof the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region>.It is located on the north bank of the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Potomac River</st1:place>.

GeorgeWashington, the first President of the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>USA</st1:place></st1:country-region>, after whom the city was named,selected an area for the capital. A hundred square miles were taken from statesof <st1:State w:st=«on»>Maryland</st1:State> and <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Virginia</st1:place></st1:State>. It was called the <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>District of Columbia</st1:place></st1:State>.The city is divided into four sections: NW, NE, SW, and SE. Numbered streetsrun north and south: <st1:Street w:st=«on»><st1:address w:st=«on»>First Street</st1:address></st1:Street>,<st1:Street w:st=«on»><st1:address w:st=«on»>Second Street</st1:address></st1:Street>…Lettered streets such as A-street, B-street run east and west. Bear in mindthat every section has an independent street system. If you’re looking for <st1:Street w:st=«on»><st1:address w:st=«on»>Third Street</st1:address></st1:Street>, youneed to know what section of the city it is in.

<st1:State w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:State>is one of the most beautiful and unusual cities in the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region>.It has little industry, and only one million people. One reason <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:place></st1:State> looksdifferent from other cities is that no building in the city may be more than <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«40 metres» w:st=«on»>40 metres</st1:metricconverter>tall. There are no skyscrapers, because they would hide the city’s manymonuments from view. One can easily find a park, a square or an open areathere. The most impressive and the best-known ones are the Lincoln Memorial andthe <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Monument</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>.

The heart of <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:place></st1:State> is the Capitol, which isconnected with the White House by <st1:Street w:st=«on»><st1:address w:st=«on»>Pennsylvania Avenue</st1:address></st1:Street>. It dominates the city of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:place></st1:City>. All the tourists beginsightseeing from the Capitol and see the Senate Chamber, the Hall of Representatives,the Statuary Hall and some others.

Thousands oftourists visit <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:place></st1:State>every day. People from all parts of the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region> come to see theircapital and the monuments to those who in past centuries struggled for theindependence of their country. The <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Monument</st1:PlaceType>, the tallest stone structurein the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>USA</st1:country-region>, is in the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Potomac River</st1:place>. It was opened to the public in 1888. It is<st1:metricconverter ProductID=«555 feet» w:st=«on»>555 feet</st1:metricconverter>tall, is called the “Pencil” because of its shape. It is three blocks south ofthe White House. There is an elevator, which will carry you to 500-foot levelobservation windows. The Lincoln Memorial is in the west of the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Monument</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. It is designed like a Greektemple. The dominant figure is the realistic figure of Abraham Lincoln seatedin the centre of the open temple. The Jefferson Memorial is worth seen, too. Itis situated south of the <st1:State w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:State> monumentnear the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Potomac River</st1:place>. The Library ofCongress contains millions of books and manuscripts. People are also interestedin churches and cathedrals. The Washington Cathedral is on <st1:Street w:st=«on»><st1:address w:st=«on»>Massachusetts Avenue</st1:address></st1:Street>, and the <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Arlington</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>National</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Cemetery</st1:PlaceType> is outside the city limitsjust across the Potomac River near the Pentagon in <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Virginia</st1:place></st1:State>. The famous Tomb of the UnknownSoldier is visited by millions of people every year.

<st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:place></st1:State>is the place where mass demonstrations take place againstunemployment and racism, for democracy and civil rights.

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