Реферат: The New-York City, Places of interest
I have been learning English for a longtime. Learning foreign languages is simply impossible without knowing the history, the places of interest the countrythe language of which you learn. The big City with its skyscrapers seems to beexciting and fascinating for me. I want to know more about The New York City,about its famous places. That is the main reason for my choosing this topic.
2. New York. Places of interest 2p.
3. ManhattanGeography 2p.
4. The FinancialDistrict 3p.
5.Greenwich Village and the East Village. 3p.
6. Statueof Liberty History 4p.
7. City Hall 5p.
8.Brooklyn Bridge 5p.
9.Liberty State Park 6p.
10.TheAmerican Museum of the Moving Image 6p.
11. Empire State building 7p.
12.<span Times New Roman",«serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; font-weight:normal;font-style:normal"><span Times New Roman",«serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;font-weight:normal;font-style:normal">TheNew York Aquarium<span Times New Roman",«serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;font-weight:normal;font-style:normal"> <span Times New Roman",«serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language: EN-US;font-weight:normal;font-style:normal">7p.
13.Central Park 9p.
New York. Places of interest.
Although New York is notthe capital of the United States, it is the biggest and most important city ofthe country. New York is situated on the Atlantic coast, in the North-East ofthe country, in the state of New York at the mouth of the deep Hudson River. Itis the financial and media capital of the world, the center of the Americancultural life and the national leader in fashion and entertainment. The “BigApple” is nickname of the city. New York, with the population of 16 mlnpeople, is the second largest city and the biggest sea port in the world. Itwas founded in 1613 by Dutch settlers. It consists of 5 large boroughs:Manhattan, the Bronx, Queens, Brooklyn and Richmond. There are a lot of placesof interest in New York. The most famous of them is The Statue Of Liberty,given to the USA by France in 1886. Its torch towers about 200 feet above theharbor and can be seen at night for many miles. It is the largest statue in theworld. The Empire State Building used to be the first, but now it is only thethird tallest building in the world. It is a 102- storied building with anobservatory on he 86 floor. Broadway is the longest street in the world. It is12 miles long. It is the center of entertainments. The Metropolitan Museum isby now probably the richest museum in the world in painting and other objectsof Art, due to what had been bought from Europeans after World War Two.Besides, we can see the works of American painters there. The Central Park isthe largest park in the world. The Fifth avenue has the best houses, hotels andfashionable shops. Times Square is known as New York’s theatre land theMetropolitan Museum of Art and many other museum are situated there. TheRockefeller center belongs to the Rockefeller family. It is 15 skyscrapers housingseveral large corporations. It is also known as “Radio City”. There is atheatre, too. The United Nations Headquarters was built in 1952. The buildingand the grounds contain sculptures and other works of art, donated by membernations. Among them is the gift of the Soviet Union.
NewYork attract people from all over. Get on a subway in New York and look at thenewspapers that people around you are reading. One person is reading anewspaper in Spanish, another in Chinese, yet others in Arabic, Russian,Italian, Yiddish, and French. New York was always a city of immigrants. Itstill is .
The are 5 boroughs in New York — Manhattan,Brooklyn, Queens, the bronx, and Staten Island. Brooklyn alone has so manypeople that if it were a separate city, it would be the fourth largest in theUnited States.
<span Times New Roman",«serif»">Manhattanis an island just 13 miles long and 2 miles wide. It is the center of Americanfinance, advertising, art theatre, publishing, fashion — and much more. Theborough of Manhattan is what most people think of New York, one of the mostexciting cities in the world.
Manhattanis divided into the East Side and the West Side. The dividing line is FifthAvenue. So, for example, East 47th Street begins at Fifth Avenue, as does West47th Street.
Manhattanis also divided, with less exactness, into Lower (Downtown), Midtown and Upper(Up-town) Manhattan. As you go North, or uptown, the street numbers get higher.Lower Manhattan refers to street numbers below 14th Street and Central Park,and Upper Manhattan to the renaming, northern, part of the island.
The Financial District.
<span Times New Roman",«serif»">TheDutch were the first Europeans to settle Manhattan. To protect themselves fromattack, they built a sturdy wooden wall. Although it’s now long gone, this wallgave its name to a street in Lower Manhattan and the street, in turn, becamesynonymous with American capitalism. The street, of course, is Wall Street. TheNew York Stock Exchange and the American Stock Exchange are both in the WallStreet area. So are many stockbrokers, investment blanks and others bank, andheadquarters of many large corporations.
Toescape the commotion of Wall Street you can visit the nearby South StreetSeaport, an open area of low buildings on the East River. In addition to manyshops and restaurants, the seaport has a museum.
Appropriately,the very first business deal in Manhattan was made in what became the financialdistrict. As every American schoolchild knows, the Dutch bought Manhattan fromthe Indians, for the ridiculously low price of 24 dollars worth of beads andtrinkets. There is, however, another, less known side of this: evidently, theIndians who had sold Manhattan did not themselves live there or in any senseown it. The Dutch and the Indians alike walked away pleased.
Greenwich Village and theEast Village.
Greenwich Village and the East Village havealways been at the center of New York’s excitement. Both have been places forpeople with different and creative ideas. Both have an active nightlife withplenty of bars, restaurants and clubs.
Inthe early 1900s the charm Greenwich Village attracted bohemians — writers andartists. By the 1920s, the streets of the Village were filled with otherpeople, curious to see how these odd Villagers lived. The artists and writersbegan moving out, some to the East Village. Today, the Village has manyelements: students attending New York University; an active jazz scene; andin Washington Square — it’s center — street performers, police. Drug dealers,joggers, roller skates, and just about everyone else.
When bohemians moved to the East Village 1920s,they found an area similar to the Lower East Side. There were many immigrants,much dirt and grime. The East Village has changed very little. Over the yearsit has been a center for many movements — for the beat poets of the 1950s, thehippies of the 1960s, and, more recently, for New York’s punk scene.
Statue of Liberty History
<img src="/cache/referats/14269/image002.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1034"><span Times New Roman",«serif»">
<span Times New Roman",«serif»">TheStatue of Liberty National Monument officially celebrated her 100th birthday onOctober 28, 1986. The people of France gave the Statue to the people of theUnited States over one hundred years ago in recognition of the friendshipestablished during the American Revolution. Over the years, the Statue ofLiberty has grown to include freedom and democracy as well as thisinternational friendship. Sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi was commissionedto design a sculpture with the year 1876 in mind for completion, to commemoratethe centennial of the American Declaration of Independence. The Statue was ajoint effort between America and France and it was agreed upon that theAmerican people were to build the pedestal, and the French people wereresponsible for the Statue and its assembly here in the United States. However,lack of funds was a problem on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. In France,public fees, various forms of entertainment, and a lottery were among themethods used to raise funds. In the United States, benefit theatrical events,art exhibitions, auctions and prize fights assisted in providing needed funds.Meanwhile in France, Bartholdi required the assistance of an engineer toaddress structural issues associated with designing such as colossal coppersculpture. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (designer of the Eiffel Tower) wascommissioned to design the massive iron pylon and secondary skeletal frameworkwhich allows the Statue's copper skin to move independently yet stand upright.Back in America, fund raising for the pedestal was going particularly slowly,so Joseph Pulitzer (noted for the Pulitzer Prize) opened up the editorial pagesof his newspaper, «The World» to support the fund raising effort.Pulitzer used his newspaper to criticize both the rich who had failed tofinance the pedestal construction and the middle class who were content to relyupon the wealthy to provide the funds. Pulitzer's campaign of harsh criticismwas successful in motivating the people of America to donate.
The story of the Statue of Liberty and her island hasbeen one of change. The Statue was placed upon a granite pedestal inside thecourtyard of the star-shaped walls of Fort Wood (which had been completed forthe War of 1812.) The United States Lighthouse Board had responsibility for theoperation of the Statue of Liberty until 1901. After 1901, the care andoperation of the Statue was placed under the War Department. A PresidentialProclamation declared Fort Wood (and the Statue of Liberty within it) aNational Monument on October 15th, 1924 and the monument's boundary was set atthe outer edge of Fort Wood. In 1933, the care and administration of theNational Monument was transferred to the National Park Service. On September 7,1937, jurisdiction was enlarged to encompass all of Bedloe's Island and in1956, the island's name was changed to Liberty Island.
<img src="/cache/referats/14269/image004.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«3» v:shapes="_x0000_s1037"> <img src="/cache/referats/14269/image005.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1025">irectly at theheart of Philadelphia, on Center Square, a National Historic Landmark rises 510feet into the air. The exact geographical center of William Penn's originalplan for Philadelphia, Center Square, known today as Penn Square, wasdesignated by Mr. Penn to be the location for a building of «publickconcerns» — home of Philadelphia's City Hall.<img src="/cache/referats/14269/image006.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1026">he huge granitemass of City Hall, throughout its 100+ year history, has indeed been a buildingof «publick concerns». An elaborate temple of local politics, CityHall is one of the nation's finest examples of French Second -EmpireArchitectural style. Controversy has surrounded the building from its earliestconception in 1860 to the present day. It has weathered severe criticism, hintsof bribery and graft, campaigns to demolish it, shortages of funding tomaintain it, and disrespect of vandals who deface it. Yet, it has also earned agreat deal of respect and admiration as a unique architectural and sculpturalachievement. <img src="/cache/referats/14269/image008.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1027">ts future remainsuncertain, but its story is fascinating.
<img src="/cache/referats/14269/image010.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1040"> Brooklyn Bridge
A VISION FOR A BRIDGE: Plans for acrossing between the city of Brooklynand lower Manhattandated back to the early 1800's. When the East River crossing was planned,Brooklyn, with about 400,000 residents, was still more rural than urban. Thecity of New York — which at the time consisted only of Manhattan — had twice asmany residents, and the bridge was seen as a solution to overcrowding inManhattan while spurring development in Brooklyn. The bridge would enable people and goods to cross the East River quickly,regardless of weather conditions.
<img src="/cache/referats/14269/image012.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1038">From The Great Bridge by David McCullough: Abridge over the East River, joining the cities of New York and Brooklyn, hadbeen talked about for nearly as long as anyone can remember… But nothing wasdone. The chief problem was always the East River, which is no river at alltechnically speaking, but a tidal strait and one of the most turbulent and inthat day, especially, one of the busiest stretches of navigable salt wateranywhere on earth. «If there is to be a bridge,» wrote one man,«it must take one grand flying leap from shore to shore over the masts ofthe ships. There can be no piers or drawbridge. There must be only one greatarch all the way across. Surely this must be a wonderful bridge.»
Originalcross-section of the roadway on the Brooklyn Bridge. (Figure by Paul PhillipeCret and Rudolphe Modjeski.)
Liberty State Park
With the Manhattan skyline, the Statue of Liberty andEllis Island as a spectacular backdrop to this urban park, Liberty State Parkis an extraordinary and unique public resource. The park hosts more visitorsthan any other in New Jersey, currently over 4 million/year, testament to thepublic's interest in this special place. Major festivals and other events areoften held in the park. The historic Central Railroad of New Jersey Terminal(CRRNJ), a grand setting for much of New Jersey's transportation history in thenortheast, sits prominently at the north end of the park. Liberty Walk, a 2mile promenade, links a picnic area, interpretive center and the CRRNJ Terminalwhile presenting visitors with a sweeping view of the Hudson River. LibertyScience Center, a popular attraction for students and families, is located inthe park's western section. Liberty State Park contains both estuarine andupland habitats. Herons, egrets, migratory shorebirds, and waterfowl utilizehabitat at the park. In the winter, long-eared owls are often seen near theinterpretive center. Liberty State Park was once an urban industrial area. As aresult of this historical land use, the Division of Parks and Forestry hasspent the past 25 years planning and building park infrastructure as well asremediating the site for public enjoyment. As part of the Division's waterfront improvementinitiative for Liberty State Park, development of an 88 acre Green Park wascompleted in 1999. The Green Park is made up of crescent lawns, trails andlandscaping improvements, including newly planted trees, shrubs and wildflowermeadows. Approximately 4 miles of paved walkways have been added, as well as 7plaza areas located along Liberty Walk, providing views of Ellis Island and theStatue of Liberty. The «Save Ellis Island!» initiative is meanwhiletaking action to restore important historic features of the island where, longago, immigrants to this country made their first stop.
<img src="/cache/referats/14269/image014.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1041"> TheAmerican Museum of the Moving Images
34-31 35th Street Astoria, NY
The American Museum of the Moving Image specializes inthe art, technology and history of moving image technology. The museum presentsexhibitions, film screenings, lectures, publications, community filmmaking,conferences and seminars. There is something for everyone here, with exhibitsgeared towards «hands-on» experiences. Some examples of this are:dubbing your own dialogue over an existing movie's soundtrack, electronically«trying on» famous movie costumes, editing film, creating movies ofyourself, and many, many behind the scenes attractions. An entire day caneasily be spent here.
<img src="/cache/referats/14269/image015.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1045"><span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">350 Fifth AvenueAt FifthAvenue and 34th Street stands New York City’s most famous fixture — starring inover 90 movies,a star of gigantic proportions- The Empire State Building.
Having held the record as the world’s tallest skyscraper for 40 years — thesymbol of this city was constructed in only two years — 1930 to 31 and the1,453 foot colossus instantly became a tourist magnet. Even King Kong came tovisit!
Enter the spacious Art Deco lobby lathed in 10,000 square feet of marble, andhead downstairs for your ticket to the observation levels. Lines get prettylong, especially during summer and the holiday season, but you can fit a triphere any time into your itinerary, they’re open from 9:30 a.m. until midnightevery day.
<span Times New Roman",«serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> The New York Aquarium
Like the history of the WCS, the New YorkAquarium’s history is also a long and successful one. On December 10th, 1896,it opened its doors for the first time in lower Manhattan in what is now knownas Battery Park, making it the oldest continually operating aquarium in theUnited States. On October 31st, 1902, the Aquarium was adopted into the care ofwhat was then the New York Zoological Society. At the time, the Aquarium housedonly 150 <img src="/cache/referats/14269/image016.jpg" align=«left» v:shapes="_x0000_s1044">specimens of wildlife.
In 1941, the Aquarium at Battery Park wasclosed due to the proposed construction of a bridge from lower Manhattan toBrooklyn. The Aquarium’s inhabitants were temporarily housed at the Bronx Zoountil the new aquarium was built after WWII. On June 6th, 1957, the Aquariumopened its doors at its new location in Coney Island, Brooklyn.
Situated on 14 acres by the sea in ConeyIsland, the New York Aquarium is home to over 350 species of aquatic wildlifeand over 8,000 specimens. The Aquarium continues its mission to raise publicawareness about issues facing the ocean and its inhabitants with its specialexhibits, public events and research. At the Aquarium’s Osborn Laboratories ofMarine Sciences (OLMS), several studies are currently underway investigatingsuch topics as dolphin cognition, satellite tagging of sharks, and coral reefs.
Seahorses (Opened April 20th, 2000):
A stampede of horses began greeting visitors to the New York Aquarium thisspring. Seahorses, that is. Located in Sea Cliffs, this new exhibit featurespygmy seahorses, pot-bellied seahorses, giant seahorses, pipefish and thedramatic leafy and weedy sea dragons. Find out why these amazing animals arenicknamed «Mr. Mom» and how they use camouflage to blend into theirsurroundings. See how they use a prehensile tail to stay in place and a suit ofarmor for protection.
How much does a walrus weigh? Do sea lions have ears? Could you survive in theocean? Can you hold your breath as long as a seal? What does a California seaotter feel like? The answers to these questions and many more can be found inthis exciting 300-foot recreation of a rocky Pacific coastal habitat. SeaCliffs is home to walruses, sea otters, penguins and seals, all of which can beviewed above and below the water, along with many different species of fish,invertebrates and plant life.
Explore the Shore:
Experience the energyof electric fish, and walk through a salt marsh. Stay dry under crashingwaves and touch sea stars, crabs and urchins. See the wonders of kelp beds,magnificent coral formations and hundreds of fish species. Hands-on exhibitsand video displays delight all in this indoor education and exhibit center.
Marine mammal demonstrations are held daily in this 1600 seat stadium.
Did you knowBeluga means «white» in Russian? Called the «canaries of thesea,» watch as our Beluga whales swim by the huge panoramic windows oftheir exhibit.
See eye-to-eye with 400-pound sand tigersharks. Watch kite shaped stingrays «fly» through the water whileponderous nurse sharks patrol the floor of this 90,000-gallon exhibit. And, ofcourse, the New York Aquarium is home to thousands of other beautiful andexotic fish. Visit today!
<span Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">CentralPark
59th (Central Park South) to 110th Street (Between 5th and 8th (Central ParkWest) Avenues)
Central Park, an 843-acre retreat in themidst of bustling Manhattan, was developed in 1858 by Frederick Olmsted, thefamous landscape architect, and Calvert Vaux. The park combines beautifullylandscaped areas with a remarkable variety of recreational facilities. Amongits many features are: Belvedere Castle, with scenic views and the children'sDiscovery Chamber. The Carousel with its beautiful and historic hand-carvedhorses. Central Park Zoo (at 64th Street), with animals living in a 5-acrehabitat. The Charles A. Dana Discovery Center, with scenic views, hands-onexhibits, and family workshops. Conservatory Garden. Delacorte Theater (at 79thStreet), host to the famous annual Shakespeare in the Park Festival. GreatLawn, featuring New York Philharmonic performances. The Heckscher Puppet House,with weekday shows at 10:30am and noon. Lasker Rink. Summer Stage, presentingfree performances and events May through August. Swedish Cottage MarionetteTheatre with performances Tuesday through Friday. Walkman ice skating rink (at62nd Street), which is open year-round, with ice-skating in the winter, androller skating and miniature golf in the summer. Also available are theBethesda Fountain, a model yacht pond, carousel, two rowing lakes and SheepMeadow. Guided tours of the Park by Manhattan National Park Rangers, featuringhistoric and natural history. The free tours, on Saturdays and Sundays, lastapproximately one and one-half hours, and include a good amount of walking.Horse-drawn carriages. The Dairy in Central Park near 64th Street and 5thAvenue is an exhibition -information-sales center for the park where slidepresentations on the park are shown continuously. The Dairy is the location ofthe Central Park Visitor and Information Center. Horse enthusiasts will findplenty of bridle paths, and horse rentals are available at the West 72nd Ststables. Visitors to Central Park can cruise the park lake on a Venetiangondola. The 37.5 foot Daughter of Venice was built in Venice and donated tothe city by New York Philanthropist Lucy Moses. The gondola rides must bereserved by calling the boat house at the above number.
To finish with it’s obligatory toadmit that During my working on the paper, I have learneda lot of facts concerned The New York City. It was interesting to find out manyplaces of interest of this beautiful Megalopolis. And to add to this, I gotclosely acquainted with many remarkable buildings, theaters, parks. I hope thisknowledge will help many pupils to study foreign countries. While doing my workI increased the level of my knowledge of English. I hope the paper, I havemade, will be useful and interest for both teachers and students of youschool.BYISK GYMNASIUM №11
FOPREING LANGUAGES CHAIR
<span Monotype Corsiva";mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> The New York City
<span Monotype Corsiva";mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> Places of Interest