Реферат: Urbanization and Urban Issues

Micro order

Order — suggests a straightening out so asto eliminate confusion.

Order can be easily found in physics ormathematics or any other science where basics are precisely defined, but itbecomes much harder task to identify any order in a science where basics areblurry. History suggests that there were greater number scientists discoveringlaws of nature as oppose to laws of social behavior. It is probably coming froma notion that people tend to discover more obvious stuff in stead of theoretical.If we look at the way of living at the beginning of science we can surely saythat it was more rural type of living than urban. It means simple fact thatpeople did not interact with one another as much as we do in modern life andtherefore science of nature was more obvious and had more practical use thanjust some theoretical study of hypothetical society that did not even exist atthat time in the way we mean and study today. Modern economy has changed theway we live, interact with one another and behave under certain circumstances. Ithas even changed the way in which science is being practiced. In the past onlywealthy people could afford to practice science, they were discovering thingswithout any bios or any expectations from their discoveries, they were doing itjust to satisfy their curiosity. Now days science became a profession and wesee more and more individuals who are in to science for only financialsatisfaction. Big corporations as well as small business mainly interested inthat science, outcome of which can improve their performance in achievingcertain goals. Scientists are being told that do and what to study. Moderntechnology together with economical forces has changed our way of living.Sophisticated tools and chemicals yield to higher crops from the same soil. Weare becoming less concerned with quality of the food we consume and only thinkof a price we pay. Farming is expensive in a sense where we can buy food fromoverseas for less. This is one of the main factors that forced farmers to moveand settle in cities. Recent statistical data suggests that 60 % of the entirepopulation will be living in cities by the year of 2030 oppose to 14% in 1950.  These changes force us to find science thatwill be dealing with human behavior and/or interactions among the society,science that will help us understand what makes us choose one place overanother. This might help us solve many questions in our life that havereputations of being unsolved. Throughout this essay I will be raising questionsthat I think have the greatest importance and will try to answer them in thebest way possible.

There is one generic rule that will helpsolve many questions from the very beginning when start exploring properties ofdifferent things. For example when in physics teacher start talking aboutvelocity, the very first sentence is definition. I think that definition isessential to any science and social science should not be any different. If sothen what is Micro order and where doe it exist.

Order is a set of rules that will endconfusion. We can observe elements of order everywhere we look. <st1:Street w:st=«on»><st1:address w:st=«on»>A street</st1:address></st1:Street> signhelping people find their ways around, a set of laws defining math, theperiodic table of Mendeleyev helping scientist end chaos in chemistry at leaston the lower level. Everything that serves its purpose is a part of the order.If this is true than what is it that creates opposite to any order or chaos, isit stuff that does not match existing rules or is it stuff that does not serveits purpose or maybe just combination of both?

I would like to look at the organizationthat I am familiar with, <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>York</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. The mainpurpose of <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>York</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> as well as any otheruniversity is to provide knowledge to people who qualify to be students. Theprocess that filters individuals by certain parameters such as GPA from other schoolsor personal achievements is an example of the order that serves its purpose offiltering within <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>York</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>.

What would it be if <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>York</st1:place></st1:City> did not have these rules and would acceptindividuals on a first come first served basis just like in McDonalds does.This still would be an example of an order but designed for different purpose.What would <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>York</st1:place></st1:City>look like and what would McDonalds look like if they switched their rules ofadmittance. Would it create a chaos at <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>York</st1:place></st1:City>and perfect order in McDonalds? It shows that set of rules must be applied thenand only then when it serves its purpose other wise it creates chaos. We allunderstand that when we have a set of rules everything is so much easier.

What makes us creating order when disorderis so much easier?

Who would not agree with me if I said thatis so much easier to use one garbage can and throw everything in there in steadof having number of different containers for disposal separation? What is itthat makes us obeying rules, is it severe punishment for not obeying, is itconciseness that makes us behave in a certain way that we think serves its bestfor needs of community and environment, or is it just because we are expected toseparate garbage and we usually do what we are asked to do? We obviously do notenforce rules of garbage separation, and not always concerned with the needs ofcommunity or environment on larger scale so it would not be logical to assumethat we would be concerned with garbage separation, or is it because we do whatwe are expected to do. I believe that last hypostasis describes our behavior inthe best way. We tend to do what are being told sometimes even with outunderstanding why we are being told so. For example we were all told that wehave to read books, by the time we were told so first time we probably had noidea what it was for, or we were told what courses we have to take in order tograduate from a certain school.

Who is the part of an order?

As I defined before order is a set ofrelevant rules what must be obeyed. But question is; who are these individualsthat must obey this set of rules. By looking at the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>York</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>we can segregate people in different groups guided by degree of theirinvolvement to <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>York</st1:place></st1:City>’slife. For example students from other schools would not have to obey rues of <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>York</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>unless they are interacting or planning on interacting with <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>York</st1:place></st1:City>. They might be students who just visit <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>York</st1:place></st1:City>’s library to studyfor their own classes or these who are current students. Another example wouldbe that in order to get into faculty of science at <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>York</st1:place></st1:City> prospective students have to takeCalculus and English OAC level in order to meet academic requirements. They arenot really at <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>York</st1:place></st1:City>yet and their admittance is uncertain but they already have started obeyingrules. Another group of people that is at <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>York</st1:place></st1:City>is obviously professors. They are one the most important group of people, theyteach students. How many times we hear students saying that this professor isgood, he knows what he is doing and makes classes interesting, or simply he isfollowing the book and therefore it make so much easier to study for exam, orwe hear this professor is horrible, he is confusing, whatever he says does notmake any sense. We discourage ourselves from attending classes and try studyingfrom the book or witch to a different section. The third group of people Iwould define as support. They help students interact with professors on acertain level.

My opinion is that in order to create a perfectorder at <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>York</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> administration has tointroduce a set of prescience rules that will be defining all possibleinteractions between and/or among all groups without any ambiguity leaving roomfreedom or for creativity. Look at the first law of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Newton</st1:place></st1:City>, it shows that there is no room forambiguity in the nature. “For any action there is an opposite reaction.” We cansay that this is very obvious statement and it can not really help usunderstand society and its behavior.

I was born in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ukraine</st1:place></st1:country-region> and came to <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Canada</st1:place></st1:country-region> at theage of nineteen. I went to school and University at <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ukraine</st1:place></st1:country-region>. The system that was adoptedfor educational purposes is very different. For example it York Universitythere is a choice between program you can graduate from, you can go toAdministrative studies and graduate with bachelor in administrative studies orgo to computer science or something else. In order to graduate from BAS allstudents have to take certain coerces. For example we have to choose among 20offered courses in social science and choose one. It seems to be logical tohave system designed in the way that would allow students to choose coursesthey are mainly interested in since it is just a general education level and doesnot really affect skills required for being an accountant. There is no rule thatprecisely defines the course but the there is one that deals with it on moregeneric level.  As an example of acontrast in Ukrainian university I had no freedom in choosing courses. I wastold exactly what to take and how many courses at a time. Which system is thebetter one? People will argue that since it is all general education and haslittle or no affect on skills essential for chosen major it does not reallymatter what to take. Or it might happen what a student decided to go to a lawschool and works towards the highest grade score possible and therefore choosesthe easiest course available or courses where level of proficiency is thehighest. Obviously freedom that this system gives mainly benefits thesestudents who know exactly what their goals are and /or these who can decide ontheir own how to achieve these defined goals. But in the same time this systemconfuses these who have not decided yet what their goals are, and attend <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>York</st1:place></st1:City> just because this issomething what is expected from them by someone else for example parents. Is itchaos or is it order? Probably what would be more of an order if admittance to <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>York</st1:place></st1:City> depended uponwhether individuals have decided what to work towards or not. If <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>York</st1:place></st1:City> had only these whoknow exactly what they are doing this system would work in the best way. Asmentioned before Ukrainians have adopted system that tells you what to do andmakes chose for you. It definitely benefits these who have not decided thatthey want or these who know that they want but do not the way who to get there.

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