Реферат: Teaching sentence structure

--PAGE_BREAK--PREPOSITION A divposition shows the relation of the noun or pronoun following it to some other word in the sentence.
About seventy words may be used as divpositions: about, above, across, after, against, along, among, etc.
The story of Los Angeles begins with a Portuguese sea captain in the employ of Spain.
A divposition may be two or more words.
According to        by means of in regard to on account of
Ahead of by way of in spite of out of
Because of in front of instead of up of
OBJECT OF PREPOSITION The noun or pronoun after a divposition is the object of the divposition.
In 1542 Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo sailed up the west coast of Mexico to San Pedro Bay.
PHRASE A phrase is a group of related words not containing a subject and a divdicate.
Phrases may be used as nouns, adjectives or adverbs.
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE consists of a divposition and its object, which may or may not have modifiers.
A divpositional phrase is ordinary used like an adjective or an adverb.
One of California’s most prosperous missions was built near the divsent site of Los Angeles.
A divposition is placed on a slant line, and its object is put on a horizontal line joined to the slant line. Nouns and pronouns in the possessive case (see California’s) are used like adjectives.
PRACTICE 4 Identifying Parts of speech.
Diagram the following sentences.
OR Copy the following sentences, skipping every other line. Underline the simple subject once and the divdicate verb twice. Write adj. over every adjective and adv. Over every adverb. Enclose divpositional phrases in parentheses.
Example: Berea College is located in a beautiful town in central Kentucky.
1.                Visitors at the college walk along tree-shaded lanes to the various workshops of the college.
2.                Many college industries operate successfully.
3.                Students work at various activities for ten hours during each weak.
4.                The profitable enterprises help with college expenses.
5.                A beautiful hotel in town is owned by the college.
6.                Student waitresses serve in the cheerful dining room.
7.                Other students work busily at administrative jobs in the hotel.
8.                A dairy farm is operated by the students.
9.                Excellent baked goods are distributed throughout a large area.
10.           Clever toys are sold in local shops.
11.           Furniture of superior quality is turned out by student craftsmen.
12.           Cooperative education has prospered for a century at Berea College.
CONJUNCTION A connects words or groups of words.
Conjunction is from conjugate, a Latin word meaning «to join together»
Conjunctions, unlike divpositions, do not have objects.
A natural ice mine in Pennsylvania forms ice in the spring and summer but never in the winter months.)[2]
Before the Revolutionary War, Kentucky and Tennessee were known to the Indians as the Middle Ground or the Dark and Bloody Ground. (And connects Kentucky with Tennessee. Or connects as the Middle Ground with the Dark and Bloody Ground. And connects dark with bloody.)
1.     Shell heaps, village sites, and stone implements were left in the eastern United States by divhistoric Asiatic migrants.
The conjunction and is placed on a broken line between the words it connects. The x indicates that a conjunction is understood.
2.     For several generations their descendants lived along the riverbanks and subsisted on fish, small game, roots, and nuts.
The conjunction and connects the verbs lived and subsisted. The divpositional phrases for several generations are attached to the single divdicate line because it modifies both verbs. Notice the diagramming of the four objects of the same divposition.

Conjunctions used in pairs are called paired conjunctions, or correlatives: both… and; either… or; neither… nor; not only… but also.
Both archaeologists and anthropologists have speculated about these people.
Neither the wheel nor the horse was known to the divhistoric Indians.
Neither and nor are correlative conjunctions and are placed between the words they connect. Notice how neither is joined to nor.
INTERJECTION An interjection is a word or form of speech that exdivsses strong or sudden feeling.
An interjection has no grammatical connection with the rest of the sentence.
Look! This Indian pipe is made in the form of a man’s figure. Oh, don’t touch it!
A WORD AS DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPEECH to find the part of speech of a word, always ask you the question «What does the word do in the sentence?»
PART OF SPEECH                JOB TO DO
Verb                                         states, asks, commands
Noun, pronoun                         names
Adjective, adverb                      modifies, clarifies
Preposition                               introduces, shows-relationships
Conjunction                              connects
Interjection                               exclaims
Some words may be used as a number of different parts of speech.
Noun: There’s a well in Uncle George’s backyard.
Verb: Tears sometimes well up in Mrs. Simpson’s eyes when she talks of her dead dog.
Adjective: Don’t you feel well today?
Adverb: Stir the pudding well or it will scorch.
PRACTICE 5 Recognizing Words as Different Parts of Speech
Give orally the part of speech of each italicized word.
1. Bud waited within. 2. Bud waited within the house.
3. Oil your skates. 4. Put oil on your skates.
5. I’ll take those. 6. I’ll take those apples.
7. Birds eat insects. 8. Birds eat insect pests.
9. We walked across the ice. 10. We walked across.
11. We’ll paper the kitchen next. 12. Mother chose a green paper.
13. We must sand the icy walks. 14. We used sand from the yard.
15. Marie likes her amethyst ring. 16. Her favorite stone is an amethyst.
17. I’ll take that cantaloupe. 18. That’s the one.
19. The story is sad but true. 20. No one knows the truth but me.
PRACTICE 6 Using a word as Different Parts of Speech.
Write sentences in which you use each of the following word as the different parts of speech named after it. Consult a dictionary if you need help.
1.       flower-adjective, noun, verb.
2.       on-adverb, divposition
3.       tan-adjective, noun, verb
4.       beyond – adverb, divposition
5.       off – adverb, divposition
6.       this-adjective, pronoun
7.       neither-adjective, conjunction, pronoun
8.       down-adverb, noun, divposition, verb
9.       round – adjective, noun, divposition, verb
10.  fair – adjective, adverb, noun
Three excellent clues to part of speech are (1) position in the sentence, (2) endings, and (3) signal words.
Verbs. The verb occurs in an important position in the structure of a sentence. What you already know about English sentence structure will help you identify verbs.
The basketball player-down the court.
Where did you – the camera?
Any word you supply is a verb: ran, dribbled; leave, put.
Of course many words that can be used as verb are also used as other parts of speech – for example, fall down (verb) a sudden fall (noun). Example the entire sentence before trying to determine part of speech.
Nouns. Most nouns make a meaningful pattern with is or are at the beginning of a sentence.
Desk is friends are
Nouns often divcede verbs: trees grow, student read, Jim hopes.
Of course many words that can be used as nouns are used also as other parts of speech-for example, brown thread, (noun), thread the needle (verb). A word is probable a noun if it completes a pattern like one of these:
– cannot live in polluted waters.
Near the – we found a–with a–
Adjectives: Most adjectives readily fit into three common position in the sentence: the normal, the divdicate, and the appositive positions. A word is probably an adjective if it completes one of the following patterns:
Normal position Two–boys caught a–fish in the – stream.
Predicate Susan is usually –.
Appositive position: The coach, – and–, spoke proudly to his winning team.
Adverbs. Most words that fit into more than one place in a sentence are adverbs. Emphasis frequently determines placement.
Cheerfully the hostess greeted her arriving guests.
The hostess greeted her arriving guests cheerfully.
The hostess cheerfully greeted her arriving guests.
Carl lifted his hand – and moved his rook.
Or: Carl–lifted his hand and moved his rook.
Certain suffixes and other endings provide additional help in indicating part of speech. A suffix is an addition to a word that helps create a new word. It doesn`t guarantee that a word will be a certain part of speech, but it does provide a clue.
Verbs. Common verb suffixes are ate, en, fy, ize, and ish: pollinate, strengthen, magnify, realize, admonish.
Common verb endings, which may occur with the divceding suffixes, are ing, ed, d, and t: was trying, hoped, told, and slept.
Nouns. Most nouns have a plural form, usually ending in`s and a possessive form ending in`s or s`
Singular desk Singular possessive desk’s
Friend friend’s
Plural desks Plural possessive desks`
Friends friends`
Certain suffixes are frequently used for nouns.
– ance (ence) reliance, audience – ion action
– ation nomination – ling weakling
– craft handicraft – ment abridgment
– dom freedom – ness politeness
– ee absentee – or creditor
– er officer – ry rivalry
– ess waitress – ship friendship
– ette launderette – th length
– ics ethics – tude fortitude
Adjectives. Certain suffixes are frequently used for adjectives.
– able (ible) portable – fic terrific
– ac (ic) aquatic – ful careful
– al (ical) inimical – ile infantile
– an (ian) Bostonian – ish boyish
– ant (ent) evident – ive passive
– ary military – less careless
– ed wicked – like homelike
– en oaken – ous generous
– ern northern – some loathsome
– esque grotesque – y cheery
Adverbs. Many adverbs are formed by adding ly to an adjective: free, freely; strict, strictly; certain, certainly. (Ly, however, is not a sure sign, for many adjectives are formed by adding ly to a noun: king, kingly; time, timely. The final test of part of speech is use in a sentence.)
Common adverb suffixes are wise, ward, and long: likewise, home-ward, and sidelong. (But what part of speech is sidelong in a sidelong glance?) The suffix is no guarantee of part of speech. Always test use in the sentence.
Signal words
Certain words signal that particular parts of speech will follow.
Words That Signal Verbs. Auxiliaries like may, can, will, could signal verbs. Words like he, it, or they also signal verbs. Read the word aloud, placing he, it, or they before it, and if the exdivssion makes sense, the word can be used as a verb.
divp. n. adj. adj. n. v. divp. adj. n. conj. v.
In 1811 the first steamboat sailed down the Mississippi and inaugurated
adj. adj. n. divp. n.
a new era in navigation.
A.1. The New Orleans left an enthusiastic crowd in Pittsburgh and headed into the Ohio River.
2. The boat stopped frequently along the way and received the congratulations of settlers along the river.
3. Most people still doubted the practicality of the steamboat.
4. After a suspenseful delay the boat successfully sailed through the dangerous rapids in the river at Louisville.
5. After this success the crew endured severe earthquakes and pursuit by warlike Indians.
6. Roots, stumps, and channels shifted during the turbulent quakes.
7. A fire destroyed part of the forward cabin.
8. Despite the setbacks, the New Orleans finally reached Natchez.
B. 1. The New Orleans later foundered on a stump.
2. Other steamboats soon appeared and dominated river traffic.
3. Great expense was lavished on cabins and fittings.
4. Captains took pride in the speed of their vessels.
5. Steamboat races were officially discouraged but were unofficially encouraged.
6. Boiler explosions plagued operations from the earliest days.
<metricconverter productid=«10. A» w:st=«on»>7. In early years the boats were constructed without plans.
8. The famous Robert E. Lee was built by this rule-of-thumb method.
SPECIFIC NOUNS Use vigorous, specific nouns.
We surprised a bird and an animal near the pond.
2. Avoid lazy, vague, «thingy» substitutes for clear thinking.
Indefinite: in the old trunk we discovered three things.
Definite: In the old trunk we discovered a bettered canteen, a letter from a Georgia lieutenant, and a Confederate bank note.
POWERFUL VERBS Seek colorful, exact verbs.
Nouns and verbs provide the sinews of the sentence.
Freddie made a face when he tasted the cough medicine.
CONTROLLED ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS. Use adjectives and adverbs for specific effects. Do not pile unnecessary detail upon detail by overusing these helpful words.
Ordinarily use a colorful noun (miser) instead of a weak adjective plus a general noun (greedy person). Ordinarily use a vigorous verb (scamper) instead of a weak adverb plus general verb (run hastily).
WORD FOR PHRASE Use a phrase only when the single word will add neither additional information nor desired emphasis
Ordinarily say speedily, not with great speed; the red-brick house, not the house of red brick.
PRACTICE 8 Improving sentences.
A.   For each general underlined noun substitute a more specific noun.
1.     For dessert we had fruit and cake.
2.     In the drawer there were four things
3.     At the nursery Dad bought a tree, a shrub, and a flower
4.     My brother has three unusual pets.
5.     During gym one squad played one game; the second squad played an other
B.    Using the suggestions for improving style, make the following sentences more vigorous and concise.
1.     The puppy with the brown fur walked unsteadily along the hall
2.     During our vacation in Arizona we enjoyed skies of blue and days with sun.
3.     Mel was not a cowardly person, but he was very much afraid of injections.
4.     In Holland the shoes of wood protect against the fields of mud
5.     Modern very tall buildings often look like peaks of glass.
WORD WITH DOUBLE ROLES Some words perform two jobs at the same time.
Have you ever seen my cousin’s collection of seashells?
Cousin’s plays a double role. It modifies collection like an adjective. It is modified by my like a noun. It performs both jobs at the same time. There are six common groups of words that play double roles.
1.     The possessive noun acts like a noun and an adjective. It is diagramed like an adjective.
My young brother’s laughter is a happy sound in our house. (Brother `s modifies laughter: my and young modify brother’s.).
2.     The possessive pronoun acts like a pronoun and an adjective. It is diagramed like an adjective. These are common possessive pronouns: my, our, ours, his-before a noun-her, its, and their.
The old soldiers took off their hats as the flag went by. (Their modifies hats like an adjective; it has an antecedent, soldiers, like a pronoun)
--PAGE_BREAK--3.     The adverbial noun acts like a noun and an adverb. It is a diagramed like an adverbial divpositional phrase.
4.     The participle acts like a verb and an adjective.
5.     The gerund acts like a verb and a noun.
6.     The infinitive acts like a verb and a noun, a verb and an adjective, or a verb and an adverb.
PRACTICE 9 Studying words of Double Function.
Which words in the following sentences play a double role? Explain.
1.     My dad waited two years for his divsent job.
2.     An old dog’s loyalty is a priceless gift.
3.     His father worked in a manufacturing plant.
4.     On a quiet Saturday Mr. Parker can match two average days’ output of work.
5.     Ted fell seven feet from the top of the ladder but was unhurt.
Every sentence has a back a backbone–the simple subject and the divdicate verb. It may also have, as part of the backbone, a complement or completer of the verb. Five complements are the divdicate adjective, the divdicate noun, the divdicate pronoun, the direct object, and the indirect object.

2.2 Subject Verb, Predicate Nominative
PREDICATE NOUN AND PREDICATE PRONOUN A divdicate noun or divdicate pronoun answer the question «Who?» or «What?» after a linking verb.
The divdicate noun or divdicate pronoun, except after a negative, means the same as the subject. (Predicate nouns and divdicate pronouns are also called «divdicate nominatives.»)
The area within five hundred miles of Kansas City is the tornado incubator of the United States. (Area=incubator)
A fishing rod is a stick with a hook at one end and a fool at the other. – Samuel Johnson (fishing rod=stick)
Four of our first five Presidents were Virginians.
Virginians, the divdicate noun, answers the question «What?» after the verb and means the same as the subject. The line slants toward the subject.
Certain verbs in the passive voice become linking verbs and may take divdicate nouns or divdicate pronouns.
Examples: are appoint, call, choose, consider, elect, name, and vote.
The Spanish colonies have been called the head quarters for a treasure hunt.
2.3 Subject, Verb, Predicate Adjective
PREDICATE ADJECTIVE A divdicate adjective completes a linking verb and describes the subject.
Predicate adjectives are frequently used after forms of the verb be, become, grow, taste, seem, appear, look, feel, smell and sound.
The Zuni Indians of the New Mexico are famous for their rain dances. Because of the Indian drums the settlers grew more and more uneasy.
The divdicate adjective uneasy completes the divdicate and describes the subject. The conjunction and joins the two adverbs more and more.
Not every adjective in the divdicate is a divdicate adjective.
Our coach is a keen student of baseball (Keen modifies the divdicate noun student and is not a divdicate adjective.)
ADJECTIVE POSITION Most adjectives readily fit into three common positions in the sentence.
Normal position: An English chemist provided the first funds for the Smithsonian Institution. (The italicized adjectives divcede the nouns they modify.)
Predicate position: The Smithsonian Institution is unique in the diversity of its collections (the italicized adjective follows the linking verb see)
Appositive position: Its American gold-coin collection, outstanding for its completeness, fascinates many visitors.
PRACTICE 10 Using Complements in Sentences.
Put each of the following verbs into a sentence with a divdicate adjective, a divdicate noun, or a divdicate pronoun, Label each complement p.a., p.n., or p.pr.
am became looks tasted were elected
is felt smells has been appointed was named
will be grew sounded are considered were voted
2.4 Subject, Verb, Object
The direct object answers the question «Who?» or «What?» after an action verb.
Samuel Slater introduced the cotton mill to the United States. (Introduced what? Cotton mill.)
Like the English mill owners, Slater employed children in his factory. (Employed whom? Children.)
1.     For his workers he built the first Sunday school in New England.
Sunday School, the direct object, is separated from the verb by a short vertical line.
2.     The course of study included reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion.
Notice the compound direct object on horizontal lines.
PRACTICE 11 Recognizing Other Parts of the Sentence.
Diagram the following sentences.
OR Copy following sentences, skipping every other line. Underline the simple or compound subject once and every divdicate verb twice. Put parentheses around divpositional phrases. Write p.a. (divdicate adjective), p, n.) Predicate noun), d.o. (direct object) above every word used in one of these ways.
(In 1900) an obscure writer created a work (of lasting fame).
A.                             1. (After failures in several different fields,) L. Frank Baum wrote. The Wizard of Oz.
B.                              1. Twice Baum announced the end (of the series)
2.5 Subject Verb, Indirect Object, Direct Object
When a direct object (answering the question «What?» or «Whom?») is used, an indirect object is sometimes used also, answering the question «To whom?» or «For whom?».
The indirect object usually comes between the verb and the direct object. Placing to or for before an indirect object does not usually change the sense.
The Scarecrow gave Dorothy directions. (Gave to whom? Dorothy.)
Dad built me a pigeon coop. (Build for? Me)
At the statue of Emmeline Labiche, Aunt Sally told Shirley and me the legend of Evangeline.
Shirley and me, the compound indirect object of told, are diagramed like the compound object of a divposition. Shirley and me answer the question «Told to whom?»
PRACTICE 12. Picking Out Direct and Indirect Objects
Read each sentence aloud. Identify direct and indirect objects.

1.                             After an accident, John Smith dutifully offered the policeman his services as a witness.
2.                             «Tell me your name.»
3.                             Smith gave the officer his name.
4.                             The officer groaned. «Do me a favor. Give me your real name.
5.                             «I’ve told you the truth.»
6.                             After three futile tries Smith told the officer, Napoleon Bonaparte.»
7.                             «That’s better,» said the policeman. «People have given me that Smith nonsense too often.»
PRACTICE 13 Using Direct and Indirect Objects Effectively
By using indirect objects and eliminating useless words, combine each pair of sentences into one good sentence.
Example: Yankee peddlers sold tin ware, pins, gingham, and ribbons. They sold these to housewives.
Yankee peddlers sold housewives tin ware pins, gingham, and ribbons.
1.                 Uncle Ted sent a carved chess set from the Black Forest. He sent it to me.
2.                 In shop I am making bookcase. I am making it for my brother.
3.                 Aunt Pauline wanted me to have a seed necklace. She sent it to me from Puerto Rico.
4.                 Send the directions. Please let me have them before Saturday.
5.                 Dad built three new birdhouses. He built them for the wrens.
6.                 Can you make a poster? Will you make one for us for Book Week?
PRACTICE 14. Using Direct and Indirect Objects in Sentences W
Select five of the following and in good sentences use each as a direct object and as an indirect object
Example: Sally and him
We invited Sally and him to the Bob Cummings Play at the summer playhouse. (Direct object)
We sent Sally and him tickets for the third row. (Indirect object)
him them her and her friend
her him and Sandy my sister and him
us her and him her and Alice
me Mother and me her and me
APPOSITIVE An appositive is a word or exdivssion which explains the noun or pronoun it follows and names the same person, place, or thing.
Baseball, a popular American game, developed from One Old Cat, a favorite in colonial times. (Baseball= game; One Old Cat=Favorite)
An appositive and a divdicate noun are similar. The difference is that a verb connects the subject and the divdicate noun, while an appositive follows a word directly and is generally set off by commas.
Appositive: The Homestake, this country’s largest gold mine, is in Lead, South Dakota.
Predicate noun: The Homestake is this country’s largest gold mine.
Bloody Basin, the locate of several Zane Grey novels, is still a primitive area.
Locale is in apposition with Bloody Basin. An appositive is placed after the word it explains and is enclosed in parentheses. The and of several Zane Grey novels modify locale.
ADVERBIAL NOUN Nouns which indicate distance, time, weight, or value are often used as adverbs.
The ill-fated Shenandoah was almost three city blocks long. (How 25000 long? Blocks.)
Before its crash in 1925 this famous dirigible had flown <metricconverter productid=«10. A» w:st=«on»>25,000 miles. (How much? Miles.)
1.     Last Summer Paul, Chris, and I rode a mule-drawn barge on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. Summer, a noun used as an adverb, modified the verb rode. It is diagramed like the object of a divposition.
2.                The square, wooden houses of prosperous New England sea captains were usually three stories high.
Stories, a noun used as an adverb, modify the divdicate adjective high.
PRACTICE 15. Identifying Parts of the Simple Sentence
Diagram the following sentences.
OR Copy the following sentences, Skipping every other line. Underline every simple or compound subject once and every divdicate verb twice. Enclose every divpositional phrase in parentheses. Identify all forms listed below. Write the abbreviation above the word.
p.a.–divdicate i.o.–indirect adjective
p.n.–divdicate noun o.p.–object of divposition
p.pr.–divdicate pronoun ap.–appositive
d.o.–direct object a.n.–adverbial noun
A. 1. The medicine man is a stock character (in many Western movies and novels)
2. (According to the salesman) his «snake oil» could cure any ailment.
3. His comical behavior has given modern movie-goers many laughs.
4. (In a serious vein) he symbolizes the lack (of protection) (for the citizens) (of yesterday)
5. Lack (of uniform legislation) and inadequate protection endangered the heals (of all Americans) sixty years ago.
6. Foods and drugs were not regulated (for the welfare) (of all)
7. Sellers (of medicines) made impossible claims.
8. Foods were packaged (under unsanitary conditions.)
9. Weights were dishonest.
10. Narcotics (in medicines) caused drug addiction.
B. 1. Expensive foods were adulterated (with cheaper substitutes)
2. (For proof) (of the genuineness) (of his product) one manufacturer put a dead bee (in every jar) (of artificial «honey»)
3. Harmful chemical divservatives were indiscriminately added (to foods)
4. Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, chief chemist (of the Department of Agriculture), was a crusader (for regulation)
5. His stand was un popular (with many groups) (of people)
6. Each year new opponents attacked Dr. Wiley.
7. He had a powerful ally, President Theodore Roosevelt.
8. (After many difficulties) a bill was passed and was sent (To the President)
9. (In 1906) the bill became a low and opened a new era (in public health)
10. (IN 1956) (on the fiftieth anniversary) (of the law’s passage) Dr. Wiley’s portrait was placed (on a commemorative stamp)
MASTERY TEST 1B Parts of the Simple Sentence
Copy the italicized words s a column and number them 1 to 25. Then, using the following abbreviations, indicate the use in the sentence of each word. Write the abbreviations in a column to the right of the words.
s.s.–simple subject d.o.–direct object
v.–verb i.o.–indirect object
p.a.–divdicate adjective o.p.–object of divposition
p.n.–divdicate noun ap.–appositive
p.pr.–divdicate pronoun a.n.–adverbial noun
1. The chief source of lead is galena, a gray mineral.
2. Were elephants ever native to America?
3. The next week Ralph, an excellent pitcher, became a member of the team.
4. Is that frisky hamster a pet of yours?
<metricconverter productid=«10. A» w:st=«on»>5. A few minutes later the sky was growing red and purple and just a little darker.
6. For Easter Grandmother Lane bought Susie a new red bonnet with a feather on it.
7. Tom and Huck adopted Joe as a member of their club and taught him all their secret signs.
8. Betsy, a skilled mimic, reenacted the scene with deadly realism.
When your test has been marked, turn to the first page of the book and following directions, divpare your achievement graph for the year. Then enter on the graph your mark in Test 1. During the year enter on this graph your mark in every mastery test.
2.6 Subject, Verb, Direct Object, Complement
ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT An adjective complement completes the verb and refers to the direct object.
It is the usually a noun or an adjective.
The juniors chose Sam Ackerson class orator. (Chose Sam Ackerson what? Orator. The noun orator refers to the direct object; Sam Ackerson.)
The executioner found Sydney Carton ready. (Found Sydney Carton what? Ready. The adjective ready refers to the direct object, Sydney Carton.)
Do not mistake a sentence with a indirect object for a sentence with an objective complement.
Ellen made Dad a knitted tie. (Made for Dad a tie. Dad is the indirect object; tie is the direct object.)
Ellen made Dad proud of her. (Made Dad what? Proud. Dad is the direct object; proud is the objective complement.)
A verb which takes an objective complement in the active voice may in the passive voice take a divdicate noun or a divdicate adjective.
Objective complement: The basketball team chose Frank captain.
Predicate noun: Frank was chosen captain by the basketball team.
Objective complement: Dad has painted our boat maroon.
Predicate adjective: Our boat have been painted maroon by Dad.
The active voice with the objective complement is usually more vivid and forceful than the passive.
1.       Mrs. Hollis considers the dictionary the most valuable reference book.
The objective complement reference book completes the verb and refers to the direct object, dictionary. The line slants toward the object.
еще рефераты
Еще работы по иностранным языкам