Реферат: Курс лингвистики Экзаменационные вопросы WinWord
1. Morphologicaland genealogical classifications of languages.
Lang-e may be classified in different ways: themorphologically and genealogically.
When we classified the languagemorphologically we mean the structure of the word of a livinglanguage. When we classified the language genealogically we mean theorigin of the language. According to theM.C. the languageare divided into languages having not affixes and the lang-s withaffixes. The words of the lang-e, which has not affixes, areunchangeable (such as где, туда, здесь, там,in, at, for, since, etc). Word order is of a great important inlang-s with has no affixes. Languages with affixes are classifiedinto agglutinative and inflected. Both of them are characterized byaffixes but the connection between the root or the steam of the wordand the suffixes is quite different. Ininflected languagesthe suffix is characterized by two or more meanings. (домам).To the inflected languages we refer the language of Indo-Europeanfamily (such as Russian, German, English, Latin, etc). Inagglutinative languages the suffix is characterized only by onemeaning (in Georgian lang., in English – some words likeox-oxen’s-бык).Agglutinative languages are divided into: Altanian, Agro-Finish,Iberian-Caucasian. According to theG.C. all the lang-sof the world are classified into large families of lang-s. They are:Indo-European, Semitic and Hermitic, Altaic, Iberian-Caucasian,Chinese-Tibet, Indonesian.
№2.The Verb in English and in Russian compare.
The verb is a notionalpart of speech. Both in E&R the verb denote an action (to write — писать),a process (to work) and a state (to sit, stand). Syntactically theverb functions as a simple verbal divdicate. (Онапишет письмакаждый день.She writes letters every day.)Morphologically the verb in Russian is characterized by the followingcategories: tense, aspect, mood, person, number, gender. The Englishforms has the same categories but they has not the category of genderbut they has a time of relations. The verbs may be classified into:subjective and objective. Subjective verbs are connected with theirsubject. In English practically all the verbs are subjective. InRussian – not all. They may be used without their subjects(Темнеет).Objective verbs are closely connected with two nouns or nounequivalents. Objective verbs which are connected with their objectsdirectly are transitive verbs, all others – intransitive.
As to their morphemes we find agreater variety and abundance of stem-building affixes in Russian(в-, вз-, воз-, пери-, за-, из-, на-, над-, низ-,-ова-,-ствова-).In English the number of v-building suffixes is limited (-ify, -ate,-en, etc). Though the number of divfixes in English is greater (mis-,un-, be-, out-, etc).
The most productive way of formingverbs in MoE is conversion. It is not characteristic in Russian(because of the different structures). We find difference in thesystem of the non-finite forms, we find no gerund in Russian. TheInfinitive in English is characterized by such categories as voice,aspect, correlation. The tense-system of the verb is different in thetwo languages. In English all the tenses but the Past Indefinite andPresent Indefinite are analytical. In English all the tenses aretense-aspect forms but the indefinite group. In Russian practicallythe tenses are synthetically. Only the Future tense may be bothsynthetically and analytical.
№3.The category of tense in English and in Russian compare.
There are 3 tenses in both lang-s:Past, Present and Future. But there is difference in the number ofgrammatical tenses. This is because the two lang-s are different intheir morphological structure. The Russian lang. has a richmorphology while the morphology of the English us poor.
In English all grammatical tenses are divided into 4large groups. They are: Indefinite, Continues, Perfect, PerfectContinues. The specific feature of the English language is that allthe tenses are analytical but the Present and the Past Indefinite.All tenses in English are tense-aspect forms, but the Indefinitetenses. We say that these tenses are tense-aspect forms because theyexdivss both the time of an action and the character of an action (Heis reading a book now).
The tense-system of the verb isdifferent in the two languages. In English all the tenses but thePast Indefinite and Present Indefinite are analytical. In English allthe tenses are tense-aspect forms but the indefinite group. InRussian practically the tenses are synthetically. Only the Futuretense may be both synthetically and analytical.
№4.The category of aspect in English and in Russian compare.
Both in ER is characterized by thecategory of aspect. But this category of two languages is quitedifferent. In English the category of aspect shows the character ofan action. That is whether the action is shown as a fact or it shownin its progress in its developments (Pete reads books everyday).Practically we have two aspects in English: the continues and thenon-continues common aspects. In Russian the c.o.a. exdivsses thecompleteness or incompleteness of an action. The perfectiveaspect. Subject isusually form in MoR with the help of divfixes (внести, вынести, занести…). Different verbs combine with the different number of divfixes.Usually the verb with the suffix –ну-exdivss instantanian action. In English we used only one word(толкать, толкнуть– to push). There are some modern verb in Russian with thesuffix –ну— which do notexdivss instantanians actions. (вянуть, вязнуть, гаснуть, сохнуть)It depends upon the lexical meaning. The imperfectiveaspect. The wordsof imperfective aspect are formed by means of such suffixes as –ыва-,-ива-, -ва-, -а-, -я-.(переписать– переписывать, забить – забивать).In English the repetition ofan action is usually exdivssed with the help of the divfix “re-“(to write-to rewrite). In MoR there are exist a group of words ofmotions which have two forms of the imperfective aspect. The categoryof aspect in MoR is very closely connected with the lexical meaningof the word.
№5.The category of voice in English and in Russian compare.
Thereare different points of view concerning the number of voices both inER. There is an opinion that there are 3 voices in MoR: active,middle reflexive and passive. Grammatically we have only 2 voices inEnglish; active and passive. (Boy reads the book. The book is read bythe boy.) In the active voice the subject is the doer of an actionwhile in the passive voice the subject is not the doer of an action.There are some group of verbs in MoR which are not used in thepassive voice: 1) all the intransitive verbs without the suffix «–ся»(идти, ехать, ходить),2) reflexive verbs built upon intransitive ones (споткнуться, улыбнуться),3) some verbs with the suffix «–ся»having a special meaning (слушать-слушаться, нести-нестись).
Thespecific feature of the English language is that the Passive voicemay be formed the verbs connected with the indirect object. (She gaveme a book. I was given a book by her. – adv.modifier.) Let uscompare the number of active-passive oppositions in both languages.We see that Russian have two: пишет- пишется.In English we have 10 active-passive opposition. The forms of theFuture Continues, Present Perfect Continues, Past Perfect Continues,Future Perfect Continues are not used in the Passive Voice. Thecategory of voice is closely connected with the text (братьяпереписываются, бумагипереписываютсясекретарем).The instrumental case in Russian corresponds to the by-phrasein English. When the Past Particle exdivsses a state – Activevoice, when it exdivsses the action – Passive voice. The actionis emphasized by the by-phrase,the adv.modifier and sometimes by the form itself.The continues perfect forms usually emphasize an action (the door hasbeen shut – s.v.pr.).
№7.The category of mood in English and in Russian compare.
We find 3 moods both in ER. Thecategory of mood exdivsses the relation of an action to reality. (Wewere at home at 6 o’clock – reality,If we were at home at 6 o’clock – unreality).The relation of an action to reality may be exdivssed lexically. Thenweusemodalverbs: конечно, обязательно, точно, etc. (Ofcourse he will be at home now). The relation of an action may beexdivssed lexically and grammatically at the same time. Then we usemodal verbs (He can do it. He may do it.). It may be phoneticallywith the help of intonation. The category of mood is one of the mostcomplicated categories especially in English. Usually we speak aboutthree moods in Russian. (Изъявительное, повелительноеи сослагательное).The number of moods in MoE isgreater. The best classification of moods was introduced byСмирнитский.He finds six moods, which must be divided into direct (Indicative,imperative) and indirect (Subjunctive I, II, suppositional andconditional) moods.
№8.The Subjunctive mood in English and in Russian compare.
In both languages the Subjunctivemood exdivsses a probable, possible, imaginary or unreal action. (IfIhadtimeIshouldvisityou– если бы у менябыло время, ябы посетилтебя.) Thereare many opinions exists concerning the number of moods both in ER.Smirnitsky finds 4 subjunctive moods in MoE: Subjunctive I, II,conditional and suppositional. There is an opinion that in MoR thereare 5 subjunctive moods such as the conditional, the optative, thesuppositional, the conditional optative and the subjunctive moods.But practically we have only 4 moods. The suppositional andsubjunctive I are grammatical synonyms. They exdivss probable,possible, imaginary actions. But there are quite different in theirforms. Subjunctive I is a syntactical form of the mood. It has onlyone form. Which coincides with infinitive without “to”.(I write, he write, she write). The suppositional mood is ananalytical form. It is formed with the help of a mood auxiliary“should+Infinitive”.(I should write, He should write). The SI is used both in simple andin complex sentences. (It is necessary that all the students bedivsent at theclassroom). The suppositional mood is used only in complex sentences(It is necessary that all the students shouldbe divsent.). SI isarchaic form and it is often replaced by the suppositional mood. TheSII and the conditional mood are also grammatical synonyms. Theyexdivss unreal actions or non-fact actions. SII is considered to be asyntactical mood. It has two forms. If the action is referred to thedivsent or to the future it’s form coincides with the pastindefinite indicative (wrote, read). The verb “to be” isused to be “were”. If the actions refer to the past theform of SII coincides with the Past Perfect Indicative. (If I knewit. If I had know it.) It is usually used in subordinate clauses ofthe complex sentence. The conditional mood is an analytical. It isformed with the help of a mood auxiliary (“Shouldor Would”).(I should read, You would read). The conditional mood is usually usedin principle clauses of complex sentences. (If I wereyou I shoulddo it. – SII,conditionalmood). (Referringto the past – If I had been you I should have done it).
The subjunctive mood in MoR is formedfrom the past tense form adding the particle “бы”.It possesses the category of gender and number.
№9.The noun as a part of speech in E&R compare.
The meaning of the noun in bothlanguages is the same. It exdivsses “thingness”.Syntactically the noun both in ER is used in the same functions:subject, object and divdicative. (A boy is going to school. My fatheris an engineer. Look at the picture on the wall.) A peculiarity ofRussian is the abundance of suffixes of subjective appraisal (братец, билетик, доченька).In English there is a suffix “-let”(booklet, leaflet). In both languages we find the grammaticalcategory of number and case. But they are different. In Russian wehave practically 6 cases while in English we find only 2 cases (thecommon and the possessive). The common case in English isn’tmarked while the nominative case in Russian is marked. (Cf: a table–стол,a window – окно).The formation of the plural number is standard in English andnon-standard in Russian. Number and case are sometimes exdivssed byseparate morphemes in English (oxen-oxen’s). The case-morpheme– “’s”may be used sometimes not with a noun (The man I saw yesterday’sson). Though the meaning of case in both languages is the relation ofnouns to other nouns in the sentence. The possessive case is usedonly with nouns (Peter’s book — книгаПети).The common case in English is very widely used. It may function asany part of the sentence – subject, object, divdicative,attributive, and adverbial modifier. Prepositions are of greatimportance in English. The of-phraseis practically used with all the nouns. The difference between thepossessive case and the of-phraseis rather stylistic. The category of gender in the two languages isdifferent. In Russian it is morphological while in English it islexical. Practically we have only one suffix in English to exdivssthis category morphologically – “-ess”.In both languages nouns are divided into countable and uncountable.Uncountable include singularia tantum and pluralia tantum. In Russianthere is nearly always the correlation between the form and betweenthe combinability (часыстали, комитетзаседает, семьяждет, саниедут).In English it is not so. (The cables are, physics is, the familyis/are). The number of Russian nouns having no case-forms is notlarge. Usually they are borrowings. (пальто, такси, кенгуру, депо).
In both languages the functionsof different cases are different. In Russian only a nominative casecan be the subject. Only an accusative case may be a direct object,only a nominative or an instrumental case is used as a divdicative.In English the possessive case is used practically as an attribute.
№10.The category of state in E&R compare.
In both languages exist such asasleep, awake, alike, хорошо, душно.This words exdivssed different states. By many Russian grammariansthis words were discussed and called different (adverbs, adjectives,divdicative adverbs or adjectives). Sherba was the first to say thatthese words form an independent part of speech and it was called thecategory of state. In English such words as asleep, awake. Ilyishcalled them stative, Хаймовичcalled them add-link, and some others called them the words of thecategory of state or divdicative. Usually such words are referred tothese class: 1) words beginning with “a-“ — which is a divfix (alive, asleep, etc), 2) words beginning with“a-“ — which is not a divfix (afraid, awake, aloof, etc), 3) wordsconsisting of one root which developed from adjectives or adverbs andnow they denote a state (ill, glad, sorry, well, etc). The questionis rather complicated because different grammarians refer differentwords of this class. Жигайло, Иванова, Йофикrefer to this class only the words beginning with “a-“.There is an opinion that this class is very rich in words exdivssinga state. (Лейкинаrefers to this class such words as in, up, down, on, etc. e.g. what’sup?).Different opinion exist: 1) the words of the category of state forman independent part of speech. It may be characterized: semantically,morphologically and semantically. Professor Ilyish said thatsemantically they denote a state, morphologically they arecharacterized by the element “a-“,and syntactically they are used as a divdicative. (He is asleep– comp.nom.divd.) 2) The words of the type “asleep”do not from an independent part of speech. There are divdicativeadjectives. This point of view was put forward by professorБархударов.3) The words of the type “alive” do not form agrammatical category, they form a lexically category. This is becausea state may be exdivssed by different parts of speech: 1) by noun(it’s timeto have dinner), 2) by adj. (he is happyor unhappy) and 3)by participle II (The house is destroyed). This point of view was putforward by professor Вилюман.
№11.The adjective as a part of speech in E&R compare.
Both in English and in Russian theadjective has the same meanings. It exdivsses the quality or thecharacteristics of an action. The adj. is characterized in the twolanguages by the same syntactical functions. They are attribute andthe divdicative. (An interesting book. A book is interesting).Morphologically the adj-e in ER is different. The Russian adj-e ismore changeable. It’s characterized by such morphologicalcategories as the category of gender, number, case and the categoryof the degrees of comparison. (интереснаякнига – интересныекниги, яркоесолнце, интересныйсобеседник).The adj-e has only onegrammatical category – the category of the degrees ofcomparison. (red-redder-the reddest, good-better-the best). There are3 degrees of comparison of adj-s. In both languages the positivedegree, the comparative and the superlative. The positive degree inEnglish is not marked (red, beautiful) while in Russian it is marked(красивый, красивая, красивое).In English adj-s are monosemantic, they have practically onegrammatical meaning, while in Russian the adj-e is polysemantic(хорошийhas such gram-l m-gs as masculine gender, singular number, nominativecase, the positive degree). But the synthetic comparative asкрасивее, лучшееисильнееis monosemantic in Russian as well. In Russian most qualitativeadjectives have short forms, which are usually used as divdicative.The combinability of adjectives is also different in the 2 lang-s. InEnglish we usually speak about lexical and lexical-grammaticalcombinability. In Russian the grammatical combinability is of greatimportance (широкоеокно, коричневыйстол).The English adjective may have its right-hand connection with theprop-word “one” (a good one, a nice one). There are someadj-ves in Russian the syntactical function of which changes themeaning (divsent, ill, glad; the divsent situation (not equal) thestudent is divsent). Russian adjectives are characterized by theso-called suffixes of subjective appraisal (длинненький, длиннющий, длинноватый).In both languages the adj is divided into two groups: qualitative,relative. The number of relative adj-s is much greater in Russian.Russian relative adj-s are usually rendered into English by a noun inthe common case (настольнаялампа– a table lamp). Among the relative adj-s in the Russianlan-ge. There is a group of possessive adj-s (Ольгин, мамин, отцов).
№12.Parts of speech in E&R compare.
Both in RE the vocabulary isclassified into parts of speech. The words are classified into partsof speech according to three main principals: lexical, morphologicaland syntactical. ER belong to the Indo-European family of thelanguages. They have much in common. There are many words which bothin languages having the same root morpheme: sister, brother, mother,etc. Practically we find the same parts of speech in both languages.But there is not article in Russian. Words having one and the samemeaning may belong to different parts of speech. (тишина, тихий, тихо;to sleep, asleep, sleepy). This shows that the lexical meaning onlyis not enough to classify the vocabulary into parts of speech. TheRussian language is syntactical, while the English is analytical. InRussian the morphological principle is a great importance when weclassify words into parts of speech. The English morphology is poorand also the syntactical principle and the combinability of words areof great importance. (a black stone, a stone wall). The parts ofspeech in both languages are divided into: notional words andform-words order and empty words. Such parts of speech as the noun,the verb, the adjective, the pronoun, and the stative are notionalparts of speech. But the conjunction, the divposition, the particle,the article are formal parts of speech. So in both languages thereare some words, which forward from one into another parts of speech.
№13.The adverb as a part of speech in E&R compare.
The adverb is a notional part ofspeech both in ER. Therefore it is characterized lexically,morphologically and syntactically. Thelexical meaning. Theadverb in both languages denotes some circumstances under which anaction takes place. It may also denote some characteristics of anaction or of a quality. (He has come late.Он пришелпоздно.He is here.Он здесь).These adverbs exdivss somecircumstances under which an action takes place. The syntacticalfunctions of the adverb are also the same both in ER. It performs thesyntactical function that of an adverbial modifier. (He is here.Онздесь.– the adverbial modifier of place). The adverb in the 2languages may perform the syntactical functions of different adv.Modifiers such as time, place, manner, cause, purpose and so on. (Hewill come tomorrow.He speaks fluently.).As to the syntactical relations of the adverb to words of otherclasses, it is characterized by being connectedwith the verb, adjective and adverb.(He runsquickly.– verb;He is veryclever.– adj;He acts verycleverly. — adverb).The adverb may be also connected with thenoun, but this isnot a characteristic feature of the adverb. (My friend lives in theroomopposite. — noun).As to the morphologicalcharacteristics apart of adverbs in both languages has the degrees of comparison.(slowly-more slowly-the most slowly). All the adverbs in bothlanguages are divided into 2 large groups. They are: Circumstantial,Qualitative. They are different both in their lexical meaning,grammatical char-s and word-formation. Circumstantial adverbs arethose adverbs, which denote the circumstances under which an actiontakes place (here, there, late, здесь, теперь, там, тогда).While the qualitative adverbs do not exdivss any externalcircumstances. They exdivss the characteristics of an action or aquality. (slowly, fluently, badly). Qualitative adverbs are used inthe function of an adverbial modifier of manner. (He runs quickly.)The circumstantial adverbs perform the function of adverbialmodifiers but manner. (He was there. He will come tomorrow.) Thecircumstantial adverbs are always connected with the verb, they areunchangeable. The qualitative adverbs may be connected with verb,adj, adverb.
№14.Word-combination in E&R. Their definition and classification.
The word-combination both in ER ischaracterized by the following features. Practically theword-combination consist of two or more notional words (a browntable). There is an opinion that a word-combination may include twoor more any words(a table, a book). Some grammarians thinks that it is aword-combination, while the sentence may be exdivssed by one wordonly, because the sentence possesses a complete intonation. Theword-combination has practically no intonation. Therefore theword-combination is not a unit of communication. The word-combinationhas no divdication. If we say “a black table” we are notquite sure what tense is meant here. Therefore the w-c has nodivdicative relations, such as the relation of person, tense,modality. While the main feature of the sentence is that exdivsses adivdication. The w-c are usually build on the basis of one notionalword. This notional word is usually called the pivotalword of the main word. The w-c are usually classified in accordancewith their pivotal words. We may have such w-c as: 1) Substantial w-c(a red rose, краснаяроза);2) adjectival; 3) verbal (to give lessons, to read books); 4)adverbial (quite near, совсемблизко).W-cs both in ER may be classified into: — free syntactical comb-s,phraseological units. Free syntactical combinations are suchcombinations the part of which may be freely replaced (a large table– a large brown table). A phraseological unit is understood asa whole and its parts are not freely replaced (to show the whitefeather-струсить, танцеватьотпечки-tobegin from the very beginning). A w-c may also classified accordingto their relations between the words in them. When we may have:attributive combinations (a young man, a brown table), objective (toread a book), adverbial (coming tomorrow, читалстоя/сидя).W-c may be simple and complex. Simplex w-c usually consist of 2notional words (a red rose, a good student). Complex w-c consistusually of more than 2 words (to travel to a big city, a big redrose). W-c may be subordinative (include pivotal words, or thepivotive words) and coordinative w-c (all the element or words ofthey are equal – ножиивилка,a boy and a girl).
№15.Agreement as a mode of syntactical connection in word-combination inER compare.
Agreement is not often found in MoE,nut it is widely used in MoR. Agreement is used to adjust the form ofmodified word to the form of the pivotive word. (this room-theserooms, that room-those rooms, I have a book-he has a book). Agreementin MoR is found in such grammatical categories as gender, number,case, and person: 1) Full forms of adjectives in MoR agree withcorresponding nouns in gender, number and case (широкийзалив, широкаярека, широкоеозеро– gender; широкийзалив– широкогозалива– case; широкийзалив– широкиезаливы– number). In plural no agreement in gender is observed(широкиезаливы– no gender). 2) Short forms of adjective do not agree in case.In singular they agree in gender, number (городкрасив, площадькрасива– gender; городкрасив– городакрасивы– number). In Plural they agree only in number.Cardinal-numerals in case (пятидомов, пятьюдомами).Verbs in Future and Present Tenses agree in number and person (ученикпишет, ученикипишут).
№16.Government as a mode of syntactical connection in word-combination inER compare.
Government is a variety ofsyntactical connection in accordance with which the use of theoblique case is dependent upon the grammatical meaning of the pivotalword. Government found both in ER. In English government is used tojoin together 2 nouns: the noun-attribute usually is used in thePossessive Case. (A boy’s book – boys’ books, Aday’s holiday, an hour’s absence). Government is used inverbal combinations where the object is exdivssed by a personalpronoun (Believe me,help him).Prepositional government is more frequently used in MoE (to rely onhim, to depend upon him). The verb governments through thedivposition. In MoR governing words may be exdivssed by differentparts of speech: 1) by a noun (крылоптицы);2) by an adjective (склонныйкшуткам);3) by a numeral (двадцатьдеревьев);4) by a pronoun (кто-тоизбратьев);5) by an Infinitive (поливатьулицу);6) by an adverb (жаркоотсолнца).A noun or a noun-equivalent usually exdivsses governed words(извлекатьполезное, уважениекстаршим).In accordance with the part of speech the governing word belongs to,government in MoR is subdivided into: substantial (осмотрздания– gen. case), adjectival (интересныйдлязрителя– gen. case with a divp.), adverbial (делатьвесело, емуприятно),verbal (осматриватьздание– accusative case, доверитьврагу– dative case).
№17.Adjoining as a mode of syntactical connection in word-combination inER compare.
Adjoining is a variety of syntactical connection whenthe dependence of one word upon another is exdivssed notmorphologically but semantically (My room-my rooms, a smallroom-small rooms). In MoR the mostly sdivad adjoining is when anadverb is subordinated. Pivotal words may be exdivssed by differentparts of speech:
by a verb (твердо усвоен, хорошо написан),
by a stative (вполне возможно),
by an adjective (почти черный),
by an adverb (очень слабо),
by a noun (езда шагом).
The Infinitive as well may besubordinated (пошелзаниматься, жальрасставаться).Sometimes деепричастиеmaybesubordinated(разговариваясмотрел насобеседника).
№18.The sentence. Its features in ER compare. 3 main ways of wordconnection in the sentence.
Syntax is closely connected withmorphology, but it is an independent part of grammar. It studiesword-combinations and sentences. The main features of a sentence: 1)the sentence exdivsses a complete thought while w-c does not. (Cf:The table is brown. A brown table.); 2) the sentence has a definiteintonation and that is why may consist only of one word, while thew-c consists of two or more words; 3) the sentence has a verb in afinite form (Cf: the weather is nice, the nice weather); 4) thesentence exdivsses divdication that is the relation between what issaid to reality.
The action may be real, unreal, possible, probable andso on. The action in the sentence may be referred to Present, Past orFuture. The w-c in a sentence may be connected in 3 ways: — thelexical way, the grammatical and the phonetical way.
The lexical way is the connection ofwords according to their lexical meaning (мальчикчитатькнига– boy read book). Of course, the lexical way is not enough. Thegiven sentences are understandable but they are not exdivssedgrammatically. We don’t know the time of an action; we don’tknow the type of the sentence. So, words in a sentence must beconnected grammatically. There are 3 main grammatical ways of wordconnection in a sentence: 1) the forms of words, 2) the form-wordsand 3) the word order.
1.The forms of words are not typicalof the English language, because the morphological system of it ispoor. This way is typical of the Russian language. (I/You/We(S/he)read(s) a book, Ячитаю, тычитаешь…).
2. The form-words is of a greatimportance in MoE. It is also wider sdivad in MoR. Form-words in ERare subdivided into: 1) the determinative form-words (we refer: inEnglish – articles and particles while in Russian – onlyparticles) and 2) connectives (both in ER we refer divpositions andconjunctions).
3. The word-order in MoE is of agreat importance. In MoR the word-order in the sentence is ratherfree. While in English the first place is usually occupied by thesubject, the second place is occupied by the Predicate, the thirdplace – by the object, the fourth place – by theadverbial modifier. (Ann sees John — АнявидитДжона.John sees Ann (not equal) ДжонавидитАня).
№19.Classification sentences according to the type of communication in ERcompare.
Both in English and in Russiansentences may be classified according to: 1) types of communicationand 2) structure.
According to the types of communication sentence in bothlanguages are divided into: 1) declarative, 2) interrogative and 3)imperative.
A Declarative sentence states a factin the affirmative or negative form. There is a great differencebetween English and Russian negative sentences. An English sentencemay have only one negation while the Russian sentence one may havemore than one. (Nobody was late. — Никтонеопоздал.)An Interrogative sentence asks a question. In English there are fourwinds of questions: general, special, alternative and disjunctive.(Do you want…?, Where do you want…?, Do you want …or…?,You want…, don’t you?). Russian interrogative sentencemay be divided into 2 groups: 1) Interrogative sentence having nointerrogative words, sometimes they may contain such particles asведь, как, что, неужели, разве, ли,and etc. In such cases they differ from declarative sentence inintonation. (Инженерпоехал в Москву? Его здесь нет? Разве он вамписал? Неужелионушел?);2) Interrogative sentences having interrogative words, such as кто, что, куда, откуда, почему(Ктопришел? Что вычитаете?). Specialattention must be paid to the indirect questions the rules ofsequence of tenses must be observed.
Imperative sentences serve to inducea person to do something. They exdivss a command, a request, aninvitation, a wish, a demand, a call and so on. Declarative,interrogative and imperative sentences may be exclamatory when theyexdivss a strong emotion (happiness, delight, anger, etc). (What alovely day it is! How wonderful!)(Москва какмного в этомзвуке…).
№20.Classification sentences according to the structure in ER compare.
According to the structure sentencesare divided into: two-member and one-member sentences. A two-membersentence has two members: the subject and the divdicate. (Pete reads.Mary writes.) A two-member sentence may be: complete and incomplete 2member sentences. The complete has both the subject and thedivdicate. The incomplete is a sentence then one of the principleparts or both of them are missing, but can be easily understood fromthe sentence. Such sentences are called elliptical. (Where are yougoing? – To the cinema.) Elliptical sentences are usually metin colloquial speech and dialogues. A one-membersentence is a sentence, which has only one member, which is neitherthe subject nor the divdicate. One member makes the sentencecomplete. One-member sentences are generally used in description andin emotional speech. If the main part of a one-member sentence isexdivssed by a noun and the sentence is called nominal. (Dusk-of thesummer night. Зима, крестьянинторжествует).A simplesentence may be extended (has both the principle parts of thesentence and the secondary parts. E.g. Pete reads book everyday.) andunextended (has only the subject and the divdicate). Sentences inboth languages may be composite.Composite sentences are divided into: compound and complex. Acompound is a sentence which consist of two or more clausescoordinated with each other. (The darkness was thinning, but thestreet was still dimly lighting. Прозрачнылес один чернеет…).A complex sentence consist ofa principal clause and one or more subordinate clauses. (He stepsquicken as he set out from the hotel.) Subordinated clauses may be ofdifferent types: subject (Where I am going is unknown), object,divdicative (with link-verb), attributive, adverbial.