Реферат: Темы английского для экзамена
Thepress is a mirror of current events. This proves to be true when you lookthrough any newspaper. There are a lot of photoes, articles, short and long,that inform readers of the latest events.
It hasbeen claimed that the British read more newspapers than any other peoplethroughout the United Kingdom.
AllBritish papers can be classified as either “quality” or “popular” papers. A“quality” paper is a serious national paper that aims at the educated reader.The best known British newspapers which give serious coverage of the news andcomment are “The Times”, “The Gardian”, “The Financial Times” and “The Independant”. Theycontain information on home and foreign affairs, serious editorials, art and literary reviews. They provideup-to-date financial information and proffesional advertiring.
Somenewspapers have colour supplement, with many photographs and advertisements. Apopular paper is a newspaper that is designed for the undemanding reader. Suchpapers have brief and direct news reports and a large number of photographs.Much attention is given to personal stories. Especially when they mention afigure in the public eye, such as a member of a royal family, a politicalfigure or a film star. The style of English in these newspapers is oftenconversational with much use of slang, catchy headlines. Among these newspapersare “The Daily Express”, “The Daily Mirror”, “The Star”. In addition tonational daily newspapers there are nine national papers published on Sundays.Several of them include coloured magazines.Stavropol
Stavropolis the main town of the Stavropol Territory. It is situated in the NorthCaucasus. Stavropol was founded in 1777 as a fortress. A presen- day Stavropolis young and beautiful. Wide streets, spacious squares, multi storeyed blocksof houses and offices add to the beauty of the town. Stavropol in summer is onebig park full of flowers.
Stavropolis a cultural center of the Stavropol Territory. There are three universities,many colleges and schools here. Stavropol Drama Theatre is the oldest theatrein the North Caucasus. The town has a puppet theatre, a circus and manycinemas. There are many places of interest in Stavropol. Near the cinema“Rodina” you can see a piece of an ancient wall. You can also see a simbolicteht with the key to the town. That’s the place from where our town began togrow.
You cansee a wonderful view of Stavropol from Komsomolskaya Gorka. It’s a monument toRussian soldiers who died that we might live.
Thereare three big parks, we can say forests in our town.
Peoplelike to walk there, especially in fine weather.TheBritish Library
TheBritish Library is the largest public library in Britain. It consists of theReference Division, the Bibliographic Service Division, the National SoundArchive and the Research and Development Department in London, and the LendingDivision in Yorkshire.
TheReference Division has its origins in the library departments of the BritishMuseum founded in 1753. It is housed within the same 19th century building ofthe British Museum, with more than 9 million books stored along two miles ofshelving, and includes a Gutenburg Bible, the Magna Carta, medieval illuminatedmanuscripts and original tects by Shakespeare, Dickens, da Vinci and manyothers. The Reading Room of the British Library is a centre of serious study inall fields. It is used by university professors and lecturers,and by those whoare engaged in research in therir spare time.
Therichness of the collections in different subjects makes the Library speciallyuseful for journalists and writers.
TheLibrary of Congress today is among the world’s largest. It was established as areference library in 1800, and occupied one room in the building of the UnitedStates Capital Washington. These structures hold more than 80 million items incollection of books, newspapers, periodicals, manuscripts, films, maps, andwork of drama, music, and art. The Library’s archives keep a great number ofimportant and exciting documents from American history.Mypet
Mostpeople like animals. They keep animals at home as pets. Pets may be different.People like dogs and cats, birds and hamsters, rabbi and hedgehoge, some peopleeven like snakes.
But youcan’t keep any animals as a pet even if you like him very much. Can a crocodilemake a good pet? Or a lion, or a tiger, or a bear? You may love them, but willthey love you? Some day when they are big they may become dangerous.
As forme, I prefer dogs. They are so clever and truthful. When they look at you withtheir beautiful eyes it seems to you that they understand you but can’t talk.
Peopleteach dogs to understand commands, to do some tricks. And it think dogs teachpeople to be kinder, to think of others. People change for better when theykeep pets.
Sure,pets need much care. You must keep the place where they sleep and eat tidy andclean, you must give them three meals a day. Dogs need more attention and carethan cats. You must take then for walks at least two times a day.
I havea dog as a pet. His name is Ret. I like him very much. I bought him. My dog iskind. He has a black nose, brown and black fur. My dog is pedigree. He likesto bathe. Ret enjoys Chappi and bones. I go for a walk with Ret. My fatherhelps me to take care of the dog. I like Ret very much. Ret is a very big dog.He lives in the dog house. We like Ret.Ihelp about the house
We livein a big house. Our flat is on the 3-th floor. We have 3 rooms and a kitchen.The flat /house/ has all modern conveniences: gas, electricity, centralheating, cold and hot running water. It’s difficult for my mother to run thehouse herself. I’m big enough to help her. Everybody in our family has his ownduties. As for me, my duty is to keep the right things in the right places. Itmeans that I must keep my room tidy and clean fold up my clothes.
UsuallyI tidy up twice a week, on Wednesday and on Saturday. I open the window in anyweather to air the room. After that I dust the furniture, water the flowers. Wedo not sweep the floor. We use a vacuum-cleaner for this.
Thereis a lot of work in the kitchen. I clean the taps, iron the towels andcurtains, wash up after meals.
I do mybest to help my mother to run the house. And I’m glad when mother is pleased withme.
SometimesI go shoping. I buy bread, butter, milk. My father’s duty is to take our dogfor a walk. But he doesn’t like it. So I take my dog for a walks in themorning.
Everybody likes holidays. NewYear, Christmas, May day and others. But these holidays are for all. There isone holiday in a year that belongs only to you. It’s your birthday.
My birthday was on the 5 ofJuly. In the morning my parents wished me many happy returns of the day andgave me presents. Mother gave me a jeans, father bought me a recorder. The daybegan wonderfully.
I invited my friends to mybirthday party. They came at 4 o’clock in the afternoon and brought me a lot ofpresents – books, sweets, toys.
Mother cooked many tasty,things, among them was a beautiful birthday cake with ten candles in it. I wasten that day. We enjoyed tea with the cake and sweets and fruit. After tea wehad a lot of fun. We played games, danced and sang songs.
In the evening my Granny and Grandpa came. They brought me a lovelypuppy as a present. It has always been my dream to have a puppy! I thanked myGrandparents and kissed them. Really, I had a wonderful birthday.NewYear party
Children all over the worldenjoy New Year. They known father frost will come and give them presents. Theylike to have a fir-tree at home. It’s fun to decorate it with shiny toys andcolored lights. And it’s nice to find a surprise under it in the morning.Children like to go to a big New Year party where they sing and dance around abeautiful New Year tree.
I like it when Father Frostcomes together with Snow Maiden. Children recite poems, sing songs, then FatherFrost gives them presents.
When I was little I be livedthat Father Frost and Snow Maiden were real. I was so upset when I learn thatthey only actors. I like New Year Parties at home, too. Father buys a New Yeartree. In the evening we decorate it together. There are many shiny balls,flags, lamps on the New Year tree. Mother usually cooks a holiday dinner. Thereare so many tasty things on the table.
At 10 o’clock guests come. Theywish us happy New Year. We watch holiday programs or TV. At 12 o’clock theKremlin clock strikes and the New Year comes. We congratulate each other andgull our best wishes. I think New Year is the best holiday.Fables
Fables are short and wisestories about animals and people. They teach us to be kind and not to boast.When we read fables we see people in the animals. We laugh at silly and greedycharacters. Fables teach us not to be silly and to be pleased with what wehave.
I want to tell you a short storyabout a greedy lion. Once he caught a hare and wanted to eat it. But then hesaw a deer, of course a deer is a bigger dinner than a hare, so the lion letthe hare go and ran after the deer, but couldn’t catch him. Now the lion had nodinner at all. Some times it is wiser to be pleased with what you have. Peoplemust remember fables and the lessons they teach us.
We all love and admire Esop’sfables. Esop lived 2500 years ago in Greece. He told his fables to many peopleand they remembered them. Millions of people all over the world now read Esop’sfables.Summeris wonderful
Summer is wonderful! There aremany long sunny days and there is no school! There are new friends and manyinteresting things to see and to do.
Some children spend theirholidays at the seaside, some in the mountains and some in the country.
Isn’t it nice to spend someweeks out of a noisy town?
Isn’t it to walk in the greenfields? To watch the clouds? To sit down by a river or a lake on soft greengrass? To climb the high hills? To swim and to fish? To play games outdoors allthe time. I think I was the happiest of all because I was at a wonderfulchildren’s camp. Children from different towns gather here every year.
In the morning we swam andbathed in the beautiful sea and played games on the yellow sand. In the eveningwe made a camp-fire, sat around it and sang songs. We all became good friends.
The day to leave came too soon.We had a very good time at camp with our new friends. Children find a lot ofthings to enjoy, and the summer month go so quickly. Then autumn comes andschool begins.Atthe library
You can hardly find a boy or agirl who is not fond of reading. Books open a wonderful world to us. Manypeople have their own libraries at home. But still they go to public librariesto get one or another new book.
There is library in our schooltoo. It’s not too big there is a wide choice of books there. Fairy tales andwar stories, poems and novels, science fiction and fables. You can come andchoice a book to your liking.
The library begins it’s work at9 o’clock and is closed at 5. If you don’t know what book to take, a librarianwill help you with your choice. A pupil is allowed to take two books at a time.Books need care as anything else. Going to the library don’t forget the libraryrules.
1.<span Times New Roman"">Washyour hands before you begin to read.
2.<span Times New Roman"">Donot write anything on the pages with a pen.
3.<span Times New Roman"">Donot make drawings in the book.
4.<span Times New Roman"">Donot make dog’s ears in the book.
5.<span Times New Roman"">Donot tear the pages.
6.<span Times New Roman"">Donot lose your books or leave them in shops or buses. That means that you loseyour friends.
If you keep all these rules you’ll make a goodreader. Books are our great friends. They
teachus a lot of useful things.Hobbies
Whatis a hobby? It’s something that you like to do when you have time to spare.People like to do different things, sometimes hobbies are very unusual.Extravagant people prefer to collect some special things. I remember a filmabout a girl whose hobby was to collect echoes. She lived in the Crimea. Sheused to explore mountains on the shore, and she found different echoes thereamong the cliffs.
Therewas a man who collected old trains. Another man collected old cars. But suchcollections need a lot of money and the place where to keep them. More oftenpeople are fond of collecting small things: stamps, match-boxes, coins,stickers.
Veryoften people collect stamps, envelopes, postcards. Its a traditional hobby ofmost children. I should say that stamps open the world for you. It’sinteresting to imagine those countries from where the letters come. There innothing better than to get a letter from your pen-friend and to see a new stampon it. Some of the stamps are very beautiful. We learn many interesting thingsabout these countries. Sometimes we stage fairy tales in English. Its great!
A year is long time. Lot’s ofthings happen in a year. There are four seasons in a year. All the seasons arenice: spring, summer, autumn and winter. Spring is the morning of the year. Inspring nature awakens and the weather gets warmer, warmer, warmer. The fieldsare covers with first fresh green grass and flowers. The forests are filledwith bird’s songs. The sky is blue and sun shines brightly. At night millionsstars shine in the darkness.
When summer comes, the weathergets warmer and sometimes it’s very hot. It’s school children’s holidays time.Some of them go to the seaside with their parents, others go to the country.Summer is wonderful. It’s nice to walk in the green fields, to play withfriends, to swim and to fish. Children find a lot of things to enjoy in summer.
After summer autumn comes. Wecall autumn a tasty season. It’s harvest time when crops are gathered in. Thedays get shorter and nights get longer. The woods turn yellow-red and brown.Leaves begin to fall down the trees. The sky is grey and it often rains.
When winter comes we spend moretime at home, because it is cold. But when snow comes the ground as a whitecarpet children like to play snowballs, to make snowman, to skate, to ski.My favorite book
It’shard to imagine our lives without books.We learn a lot of interesting thingswhen we read books. Books are our great friend and teachers.
Iam fond of reading. I like to read adventure stories, fairy tales, historybooks.
Whenyou read books you find your selves in different lands. Together with thecharacters of the books you climb high mountains, go by ship in the stormy sea,fly into space. In a ward, you have a lot of adventures.
Thereare books and writers that everybody knows. “Mary Poppins” by Pamela Travers,“Winnie-the-Pooh” by Alan Milne, and of course “The adventures of Tom Sawyer”by Mark Twain.
My favorite book is “TomSawyer”. Tom Sawyer was a boy with wildimagination. He and his friends liked to play games, dreamt of differentadventures. Tom was sometimes naughty and never quiet. But he was often nobleand always bright and full of ideas, I also enjoy books about animals. Have youever heard of Bambi? He is a baby dear who is famous all over the world.“Bambi” is a book by an Austrian writer Felix Salthen. It’s author is a poetwho feels nature deeply and loves animals.Myfriend
Ihave a friend. His name is Denis. He is a pupil of the 8 form. He is lovely boy with dark hairand brown eyes. He is 13. My friend is a clever and industrious boy. He studieswell. Besides he is fond of basketball. He plays the basketball very well. My friendknows a lot of interesting things.
Denishas a sweet nature. He is attentive and thoughtful to people. He helps hisparent about the house. He washes the dishes, tidies up the flat and goesshopping. Denis has a pet. It’s a dog. He takes good care of his and alwaysgoes for a walk with him.
Wespend much time together, and almost never quarrel. On days-of we go to thecinema, and when the weather is fine we like to play outdoors.
WhatI like in him is that he always keeps his word and never boasts.
Thereis a proverb: a friend inneed is a friend indeed. And I may say, that thesewords are about my friend. Because he is always ready to help me, when I am introubles.
Ithink Denis is the very good friend.
Weought to take care of everything that nature gives us
Naturegives people everything they need for their lives. People have learnt to usethe soil, the water, the minerals on the earth and under the earth.
Forestsare the lungs of the planet. They give us fresh air, from the forest we getwood to build the houses, the furniture and what-not. Paper is also made fromwood. Can you imagine our life without a common piece of paper. No books, nonewspapers. Terrible, isn’t it? Most of our clothes are also made from naturalmaterial: leather, wool, cotton.
Peoplewill simply die if nature is spoiled. It may sound strange, but no one doesmore harm to nature than people do.
Plantsand factories throw their wastes into seas and oceans, pollute water,contaminate sea animals and fish. Some birds and animals have disappeared fromthe earth in this century. People often killed them for their beautiful skinsand feather.
Buttoday there are people in all parts of the world who are trying to protect wildanimals and birds. There is even an international organization called “GreenPeace”. Reservations for rare plants and animals are set up in different partsof the world. Hunting is not allowed there.
Weall love our Earth. We love its green fields and forests, mountains, rivers andlakes. We must take care of every thing that grows and lives on the Earth.Welike to travel
Thousandsof people spend their holidays travelling. They travel by trains, by buses, bysea, by air or in their own cars.
Alot of people travel in their own cars. Wonderful landscapes of our countryattract lovers of nature. People travel not only to enjoy picturesque places,but also to see ancient monuments and other places of interest.
Hikingis becoming very popular. People like to spend their days-off in the country.Happy they return home to plan new hikes for the coming weekend.
Somepeople prefer travelling by train, others by sea. It’s very comfortable,especially if you don’t feel seasick.
Infine weather the passengers
Ilike to look at the ship with its many decks and cabins. It looks like a whiteflouting city. When the sea is a little rough, the ship rolls from side toside. Some passengers feel seasick.
Ilike to watch the sea-gulls, listen to their cries when they fly over thewaves.
It’salso fine to travel by trains. From a comfortable railway carriage you have asplendid view of a country side.
Andof course it’s not bad to travel in a car. You may stop at any place you like,have lunch under a shady tree or swim in a cool river or a like.Sportis good for all
People all over the world arefond of sport. Sport activities are very important for the growing organism ofa child. Children showed not neglect this fact.
There are many sport clubs thatthey can join us. Light athletics gives much opportunity to those who go in forit. It includes track field events: running, long-jumping, high jumping, discusthrowing and others.
Many children are fond of ballgames: basketball, volleyball, football. They are so exiting. Besides they areplayed all year round. Children like to take part in the competitions to seewho is the quickest, the strongest, who can jump best, who is the best swimmeror player. Pupils in different classes hold competitions in different kinds ofsport. Many boys and girls show good results. All the competitions and gamesare very popular with the pupils. A lot of fans always come to watch them.
Myfavorite sport is basketball. Basketball is a wonderful sport. It’s a goodexercise too. It makes us strong and healthy.
To become a good sportsman you must train alot. If you want to be good at something you have to work hard. Practice makesperfect.Allaround you
The world is full of wonderfulthings. You see the blue sky and the grey rain, the black night and the shinystars, trees and mountains, seas and sunshine. These things are the world, andthey are all around you.
It’s interesting to know why weneed the Sun, why the moon is bright, what animals live on the Earth.
The world we live on is a biground ball. It’s turning all the time, but we can’t feel it.
The Sun shines on the Earth therain falls on it.
Different plants grow on theEarth, different animals live on it. The forests are full of berries and mushrooms.
There is water around the land.It’s called the World Ocean. There is life in the Ocean too. Different seaanimals and fishes live in the ocean.
Nature gives us every thing weneed for our life. People grow food on the ground. Animals give us meat andmilk. We must take good care of nature.
Keep your eyes and ears open andyou’ll see a lot of interesting thing around you.Planninga day
My working day begins rather early.I wake up at 6.30, I am not an early – riser and its difficult for me to get upso early. Then I go to the bathroom, wash my face, clean my teeth and comb myhair. After that I dress myself.
In the morning I don’t have muchtime for breakfast, so I have a cup of tea with a sandwich. Then I take myschoolbag and run to the bus stop. My way to school is rather hard because ofthe traffic. I live rather far from school. It takes me nearly 40 minutes toget there. The buses and trolley-buses are usually overcrowded in the morning.And it’s a problem to get into it. I must elbow my way to stand somewhere inthe corner. Nobody can call such a ride a pleasure, neither can I.
At last I am at school, and theday’s work begins. Usually we have six or seven lessons a day with ten minutebreaks.
At 1.30 the school is over. Butmy working day is not, I have to do my homework at 2.00 p.m. I come home,change my clothes, wash my hands and have dinner. After dinner I have a shortrest and then I do my homework.
Most of all I like eveninghours, when the family gets together. We like to have dinner together and speakabout our problems. Then we watch TV, or read. At 11 o’clock I go to bed. At6.30 in the morning the alarm clock wakes me up, and I am happy to start a newday.Holidayin the USA
In the USA different statescelebrate different holidays, but everyone remembers the 4th ofJuly, “Independence day”. On this day in 1776 America signed the Declaration ofIndependence. On that day people go out into the streets and take part in theparades. The second big American festival is Thanksgiving day. It is celebratedin November. American families meet for a special dinner, usually with turkey,pumpkin and pies. They give thanks to God for the past year, remember the firstharvest of European Americans in 1621.
Children always have fun atHalloween on October 31. They dress up as ghosts and witches. They go fromhouse and say “Trick or Treat”. If they get a “treat”, they go away happy. Butif they don’t, they play a “trick”. They might put soap on the windows or throw----------- ??? in the garden.
February the 14th isSaint Valentine’s Day. People send valentine cards to their sweethearts offriends with words of love.
Christmas is celebrated at theend of December. It’s a religious holiday, the birth of Jesus Christ. By thisday people decorate fir-trees with toys and lights. Christmas is a very busytime. People hurry to the shops to buy presents for their nearest and dearest.On New Year’s Day most people stay up all night, even children. At midnightthey go outside and shout “Happy New Year!”