Реферат: Social Control Essay Research Paper Big man

Social Control Essay, Research Paper

Big man- a self-made leader in a small-scale society. His

position is temporary, depending on personal ability and consent

of his followers. Chiefdom- a politically organised society with a permanent

head, usually with one layer of control over more than one local

community. The importance of social control

In any society, there are laws which must be observed, penalties

that punish their infraction, and procedures that can be called

upon to judge guilt or innocence, impose sentences, and provide

recompense. These form a holistic system of social control,

without which no form of society could be maintained.

To be effective, however, a system of social control must be

accompanied by the socially mandated authority and power to

ensure that it functions smoothly. Allocating to some of

society«s members the authority and power to regulate the

behaviour of others by setting common goals, changing them,

enforcing them, and preventing and resolving conflict is termed


Every society, therefore, designates certain individuals (and

often groups as well), by formal or informal means, to exercise

leadership and control over others: to establish and maintain the

society»s priorities (sometimes called policies); to

prevent, limit, or resolve conflicts between individuals or

groups; to dissuade or punish those who challenge the social

order, and to direct change. These individuals or groups assume

or are granted power and authority denied to others. Power- the capacity to control the behaviour of others, using

means such as education, persuasion, coercion, punishment or


Power may be based on physical strength, wealth, or efficient

organisation. Or it may be based on superior knowledge; in some

societies, only certain people- priests or hereditary rulers, for

example- are allowed access to certain kinds of information. Authority- the socially ranted right to exercise power.

Ordinarily, authority is conveyed to an individual through an

office, a position in which a certain kind and amount of

authority is inherent and which exists independently of its

occupant at any given time. Theoretically, authority can exist

without power, although it would be useless; and power can be

exercised without authority. But for social order, both are

needed. Authority may be:

1) ascribed e.g. Ashanti king, Queen Elizabeth, Gopalpur

2) achieved e.g. Yanomamo, Tony Blair

3) a combination of both e.g. Trobrianders


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