Реферат: Diabetes And Types Essay Research Paper DiabetesDiabetes
Diabetes And Types Essay, Research Paper
Diabetes is little or no ability to move glucose out of the blood into the red blood cells. Nearly 16 million people have diabetes in the United States, which narrows it down to about 1 out of every seventeen people. About 2,150 new cases are diagnosed each day. Many of us do not clearly know what diabetes is and the different categories that it is classified in. The first type of diabetes that will be discussed is type 1 diabetes and steps that can be taken to diagnose diabetes. The second type of diabetes that will be talked about will be type 2 diabetes and how it effects patients. The third type of diabetes is gestational diabetes and how exercise can help control diabetes. This paper discusses type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes, their causes, diagnosis, treatments, and how they effect the patient.
The first type of diabetes that will be talked about will be type 1 diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. People with type 1 diabetes don’t produce insulin and need regular shots of it to keep their blood glucose levels normal (What is Diabetes, Type 1). Almost half of the people with this type of diabetes are aged 20 and younger (Bernstein 167). That is why type 1 diabetes was once called juvenile onset diabetes, but the name has been dropped because it also strikes young adults. Type 1 diabetes accounts for only about 5 to 10 percent of the disease. The vast majority has type 2 diabetes. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are a family history of the disease, the white race and being at an age less than 20. Half the people diagnosed with type 1 diabetes are under the age of 20. One of the causes of type 1 diabetes are genetics. Scientist suspect that heredity plays a major role in type 1 diabetes and researchers have found several genes that appear to increase the risk of type 1. Another cause is viruses. Type 1 diabetes often strikes shortly after a viral infection. The viruses that cause this are mumps, German measles, and a close relative of the virus that causes polio. Another cause is chemicals and drugs. Studies show that ingestion of pyrinimil, a poison used to kill rats, can trigger type 1 diabetes. So can the prescription drug pentamidine, used to treat pneumonia. The last cause is cows milk. Cows milk contains a protein similar to a protein found on beta cells. Exposure to cows milk during infancy may increase the risk of type 1 diabetes (Diabetes Research Institute).
There are many different procedures that can be taken for the diagnosis of diabetes. A series of light flashes, each at a different wavelength is used to excite various proteins in the eye, each according to a particular length and the proteins emit fluorescent light. The pattern of light emissions reflects the distribution of carious proteins, which changes according to various psychological conditions (Scientific American Medical 22). This new method is based on synchronous fluorescent spectrometry, which combines a detector with a light source to measure the intensity of light emitted by proteins in the eye from each wavelength shown into the eye. A computer then compares the patient’s peaks and valleys of such measurements with corresponding spectra form normal and diabetic eyes. Any one of the following three tests shows the diagnosis values for diabetes: a measurement of fasting plasma glucose, a blood test done after not eating for 8 hours, showing more than 125 mg/dl, and a oral glucose tolerance test after the person drinks a sugar solution containing 75 grams in glucose in which the blood sugar levels is more than 199 mg/dl at 2 hours (Matinas 28). Two abnormal test results, using any of the three tests done on two different days, are needed to make the diagnosis for diabetes. A special test is needed for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes (Stenger 2). A screening test consisting of 50 g oral glucose followed by a plasma glucose determination 1 hour later. A value of greater than 140 mg, 1 hour after the 50 g load indicates the need for larger tests.
The second type of diabetes that will be talked about will be type 2 diabetes, or non-insulin dependent diabetes. 90 to 95 percent of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes (Romeo). Type 2 diabetes produce insulin but the cells in their bodies are insulin resistant, which means they don’t respond properly to the hormone, so glucose accumulates in their blood. Insulin resistance increases as weight increases and physical activity decreases. Many people with type 2 diabetes have sedentary lifestyles and are obese. Some people with type 2 diabetes must inject insulin, but most can control the disease through a combination of weight loss exercise, and prescription oral diabetes medication. Scientists are not really sure what causes type 2 diabetes but they do know that it runs in families.. Some risk factors for type 2 are genetics, age, and race (Greenberger 113). The age that type 2 mostly affects is people that are over 30 years old. The race that type 2 strikes mostly is Native Americans, African Americans, and Hispanics. Anther risk factor is women who have had gestational diabetes or women who have given birth to babies weighing 9 pounds or less. A common risk factor is the use of certain drugs. These drugs include thiadize, diuretics, and steroids that may contribute to type 2 diabetes. This paragraph tells how patients and their families are affected by type 2 diabetes. Physically this disease has affected the patient by causing blurred vision, and neuropathy in his feet, and also a tingling feeling in the tips of his fingers (G. Gorton). Neuropathy is the destruction of nerves which means that you cannot feel anything in that area, in this case his feet. Emotionally it has affected the patient, because he fears amputation of his limbs if it will be needed. Otherwise it has not affected him. Economically it has not really affected the patient because he is with a good insurance company, which pays for all of his expenses. Socially it has affected the patient because he cannot go out and eat heavy foods or have hard liquor with his family or friends as often. The patient has been using traditional treatment for his disease. He does not take any insulin injection or any other shots and only takes one pill per day. Emotionally the family feels sorry for the patient, that he is not able do all the fun things everybody else does (R. Gorton). Spiritually it has affected the family by trying to do everything they can for the patient to make him feel more comfortable. It is important for family and friends to help the patient feel as comfortable as they can and not to feel left out.
The third type of diabetes is called gestational diabetes and it only develops in women that are pregnant. Nearly 135,000 women develop gestational diabetes each year. Typically it clears up on its own after women have delivered the baby (Grisewood and Dempsey 508). Studies have shown that about 40 percent of women with gestational diabetes go on to develop type 2 diabetes within 15 years. All pregnant women should be tested for gestational diabetes between their 24th and 28th week of pregnancy. Keeping your weight down, eating healthy, and exercising regularly may help prevent insulin resistance and the development of diabetes. There are 3 risk factors for gestational diabetes. The first one is genetics, which runs in families (Parkers 159). The second risk factor is obesity because it increases insulin resistance. The third risk factor is race or ethnicity. Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, and African Americans are at an increased risk. There is really one cause of gestational diabetes. This cause is hormones. Pregnant women produce various hormones essential to the baby’s growth (Williams 67). However, these hormones may also make it hard for the mother to properly use insulin, causing insulin resistance.
Regular exercise is crucial to the management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Exercise increases cellular insulin sensitivity, which can help the patient reduce the dose of insulin or oral medication (CNN ). It decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease, by far the leading killer of people with diabetes. It burns calories, which helps with weight control, and it has an anti-depressant mood elevating effect, which improves self-esteem (Tips on Coordinating Exercise). But exercise can also increase risk of hypoglycemic crises. Aggravated ketoacid can cause bleeding into the eye on those patients with proliferative retinopathy. So, while diabetics should exercise regularly, they also need to exercise prudently (Mason 62). Everyone with diabetes respond individually to exercise. Beyond the need to exercise, no generalization applies to everyone all the time. Too much exercise is not too good for your body either. You need to have breaks where you can rest. The patient always needs to check their blood sugar and blood pressure before and after each time the patient exercises. They cannot let the glucose be too low and not too high.
This paper discussed types 1 and 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes, their causes, diagnosis, treatments, and how they affect the patient. The first type of diabetes that has been talked about is type 1 diabetes and steps that can be taken to diagnose diabetes. The second type of diabetes is type 2 diabetes and how it effects the patient. The third type of diabetes is gestational diabetes and how exercise can help control diabetes. Now you have recognized what diabetes is and what the categories are that it is classified in. I believe that diabetes is not a harmful disease if it is taken care of. If patients ignore the fact, or do not know that they have diabetes and keep on eating foods that they are not supposed to and are not exercising, they will not get too far before a really serious injury occurs to them. I know a lot of people that have had diabetes for years, but they just watch what they eat, and either inject insulin into their bodies or take some kind of pill, and they are fine.