Реферат: Рождество в Англии
<img src="/cache/referats/19666/image001.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1035"> In England Christmas puddingand cakes are being prepared in 6<img src="/cache/referats/19666/image003.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1025">
Frankly speaking, nowadays English pudding oftener is bought at the shopthan it is made by the English themselves for to cook it’s both more expensiveand gives a lot of troubles which are enough before Christmas as it is.
But the tradition of Christmas pudding is believed not to die out inEngland. Many people make sweets even if they usually do not prepare anythingmore and they give away these sweets to their friends. Christmas pudding hasgone down in history and English culture. It even played the main roles inEnglish books. For instance here it is what Mrs. Ross out of detective by A.Christie `` Theft of royal ruby`` tells about pudding:
“Real Christmas pudding must be made in some weeks before Christmas and it mustbe left in coldness; the longer it is kept within reasonable limits, of course,the more delicious it is. I remember when I was a little girl and we went tothe church every Sunday, so we wanted for a certain prayer, which was served asa signal to preparing of puddings. On Sunday the prayer was said and not laterthan next week my mother made Christmas pudding without fail. Everybody livingin the house had to enter the kitchen to stir the pudding and to think of anywish. That is the long-standing tradition, sir, and I always follow it.”
Christmas psalms, skating, garlands and other typical Christmasattributes accompany beginning of feast time in Great Britain traditionally.This year lighting ceremony of Christmas garlands in Regent-street, Old Streetof London city celebrates its anniversary of 50 years.
Historical royal places of London, remind about Christmas celebration inthe past centuries. At the Tower of London Norman Christmas takes part from the27 till the 31 of December that recreates atmosphere of 1098 year which ismemorable; exactly there the king Henry 1 and his suite celebrated the feastafter finishing of building of the fortress.
At Hampton Court Palace Jacobean Christmas is celebrated from the 27till the 1 of January; Jacob 1 and Ann Danish laid its traditions. Theskating-ring getting up in best traditions of that time is opened also here.
In Christmas Eve 12 showrooms at Geoffrey’s museum in an east part ofLondon are festively decorated where some furniture and examples of interior ofperiod since 1600 up to our days are exhibited. Visitors can find out what isthe foundation of such traditions as kissing under mistle-toe and decorating ofa fir-tree.
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For English children Christmas appears indistinctly in October yet, atthis time they sit at the table and putting out their tonguage tips with effortwrite Christmas list for Father Christmas. Shop owners sell different thematictogs just from this moment.
In generally this is a long-standing tradition. In UK there aretraditions, rituals, distinctive marks, Kinks and other crazy ideas, connectedto winters festivities more than in all the rest of Europe. It being (Therebeing) both long-standing traditions and relatively new ones, but they are gotfirmly cemented in the midst of Britain mentality. Here is an example; from theend of the 19-century Advent calendars come to England from Germany. First theyhad religious “grown up” aim but soon children started using them. And now eachyear from the 1 0f December whole juvenile Britain keeps counting to theAdvent. And these Calendars can be wild: blinking, chocolate, waffle, of theycan be even like heads of Martians.
<img src="/cache/referats/19666/image006.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1026"> Majority of building aredecorated only in two weeks before Christmas. Trees in many of which the leavesare left are enmeshed in tinsel, coloured lights and different ribbons. Lawnsin front of houses are usually hidden almost completely with holly andivygarlands and with statues of Father Christmas. In Christmas Eve children goto bed right after they are read prayers and thrilling Christmas stories. Butbefore this they are sure to leave a pie with meat topping and some milk forFather Christmas and a carrot for a certain Rudolf to receive presents. And inthe morning at this unearthly hour children rush upstairs to the living roomswhere everything what they were looking forward to, is under the fir-tree intheir stockings.
At about 13 o’clock relatives and friends come to see each other, theykiss, other embrace, exchange their presents, discuss some trifles with delightand at last take their seats at Christmas table.
<img src="/cache/referats/19666/image008.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1027"> Shrimp-cocktails are servedup as a starter, for the main course turkey is with black currants dressing andChristmas pudding is for dessert.
At 15 o’clock Queen Elizabeth appeals to English people with holidayspeech. Then the best and the funniest telecasts are showed in TV.
London is true Christmas House and a cradle of most traditions withoutquestions streets are sparkled with thousands of lights and other designedenterprises. Fresh air pricks occasionally cheeks and nose and frost changesthe city into Christmas Wonderland like by Dickens. London allows feeling allnuances of festival atmosphere. All kinds of choirs sing at churches, allpublic houses offer special menus and some peculiar amusements, streets,squares and theatres are flooded by organizers of entertainments, clowns andwith pop-groups.
But first of all X-mas is sure to do shoppingfor all people.
For Christmas sales all the shops preparebefore hand from about middle of October.
These sales are the most substantial forthe whole year. Shop windows are set with little angels, snowmen, deer broodsand cohorts of Santa Claus.
By the way, would you remember everything can be given as a presents forChristmas in England, it depends on your tastes and opportunities. The latesttendency is to manage somehow and to buy something what nobody dares call tagsor junk. For example helicopter airing is very popular now. The most popular gifts are considered touristvouchers, books, DVD, CD and clothes as well. The English regard Christmasextremely seriously like any other tradition. The houses and appartments arecleared very careful in a week before Christmas. Out through the windows cansee decorated fir-trees. On the door of every house there is a green garland ofmistle-toe, and above the door there are alot of coloured lights.
In spacious and a little empty on usual daysstores is agiotage, because first of all you should have time to buy a heap ofpresents and to store meals as on the 24th, 25th and 26thof December the shops are closed. The second reason is you may not miss the case to gain something beeneager at a discount. The red patches “Sale” appear at the very beginning ofDecember and by the middle of the month all the shop-doors and windows areglued over with them. At all stores including also groceries there are plentyof various Christmas toys:there are Santa Claus, littlesilver bells and half-moons and balls with wishes as well.
Promptly after Christmas these toys will be piled up in the boxes besidethe cash desk. And these boxes cost only 50 pence;if you buy 3 toys you get a discount, and if you take ten ore more onesso the discount is much more larger. But in that case the sellers will be veryastonished for the next feast is in a year, you know.
All themarkets of London are very busy. The biggest of them is Petty-coat Lane marketnear by metro-station “Victoria”. This market is opened only on Sunday from 8till 14 o’clock. The traffic is stopped at this time. At the market everythingis cheaper than at any other shop. The most popular presents in December areSanta’s caps and eyeglasses with a big red nose and a little lamp inside it.Having bought this wonderful adornment everybody put it on immediately. It’svery funny to see a practical gentleman in a bowler and with a walking stickworn in clown’s spectacles with a nose, in deed.
The little market on Greenwich Island is muchmore interesting. It’s not so cheap, but all the things are unique. Here youcan find hand-working embroidery from all over the world, antiquarian bonnets,feathers, lamps, tables and huge pink shells too. You can also discoverhandmade articles of the English themselves; they are models of ships placed inthe bottles that symbolize England as sovereign of seas. This museum in theopen sky works only on Saturdays and Sundays.
<img src="/cache/referats/19666/image009.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1030"> On Christmas Eve streets of London become deserted. The tourists scurryabout only in Soho and Piccadilly. The really English stay at home the wholefeast, going out only to mass. The most solemn mass takes place at theWestminster Abbey;those who couldn’t force their way crowd outside. To take a taxi it is almostimpossible, for taxi-drivers are people too and they also spend the evening intheir family circle. In the deserted streets and windows of the empty shops itis snowing and the toy deer are driving toy Santa Claus at that time. On the 27thof December the shops are opened and the English rush to buy some things atgive – away prices: discounts in the week after Christmas are the largest.
A fewdays before Christmas English supermarket Fortnum and mason usually sells products made of venison. Here you can gain pate andtinned stewed meat made of flesh of those animals that according to fairy-talesSanta Claus puts into his sledge. Firm Edible produces these products. Thisfirm just specializes in preparation of exotic foods, for example, insects inchocolate or wine with snakes.
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In Great Britain present are ordered at Father Christmas. He was writtendetailed letter enumerating everything is wished and this letter is thrown intothe fireplace. Smoke out of the chimney is thought to supply this list rightits purpose. But of course to buy gifts one should go shopping. In the familycircle the ceremony of gift distribution is run according to old-standingtradition, with a lot. And the custom of sending of postcards with Christmastopics is kept without fail. In the eve Britain Mass midi as report thetraffic on the principle highways to be half-petrified for the Britains haverushed for the journey. The whole family is gathered to celebrate Christmasaccording to the tradition. And on the 24of December traditionalmain service takes place at churches late in the evening.
But nowadays some Britains, especially youth deviates from traditions offamily holyday and they leave for having rest to mountain-skiing health-resortsor to warm South Seas.
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<img src="/cache/referats/19666/image013.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1027"> Zagoruiko