Реферат: Курс лингвистики (Экзаменационные вопросы)

№1. Morphological and genealogical classifications of languages.

Lang-e may be classified in different ways: the morphologically andgenealogically.

Whenwe classified the language morphologically we mean the structure of the word ofa living language. When we classified the language genealogically we mean theorigin of the language. According to the M.C. the language are dividedinto languages having not affixes and the lang-s with affixes. The words of thelang-e, which has not affixes, are unchangeable (such as где, туда, здесь, там, in, at, for, since, etc). Word order is of a great important in lang-swith has no affixes. Languages with affixes are classified into agglutinativeand inflected. Both of them are characterized by affixes but the connectionbetween the root or the steam of the word and the suffixes is quite different. Ininflected languages the suffix is characterized by two or more meanings. (домам). To the inflected languages we refer the language of Indo-Europeanfamily (such as Russian, German, English, Latin, etc). In agglutinativelanguages the suffix is characterized only by one meaning (in Georgian lang.,in English – some words like ox-oxen’s-бык). Agglutinative languagesare divided into: Altanian, Agro-Finish, Iberian-Caucasian. According to theG.C. all the lang-s of the world are classified into large families oflang-s. They are: Indo-European, Semitic and Hermitic, Altaic,Iberian-Caucasian, Chinese-Tibet, Indonesian.

№2.The Verb in English and in Russian compare.

The verb is a notional part of speech. Both in E&R the verb denotean action (to write — писать), a process (to work) and a state (to sit,stand). Syntactically the verb functions as a simple verbal predicate. (Она пишет письма каждыйдень. She writes letters every day.) Morphologically theverb in Russian is characterized by the following categories: tense, aspect,mood, person, number, gender. The English forms has the same categories butthey has not the category of gender but they has a time of relations. The verbsmay be classified into: subjective and objective. Subjective verbs areconnected with their subject. In English practically all the verbs aresubjective. In Russian – not all. They may be used without their subjects (Темнеет). Objective verbs are closely connected with two nouns or nounequivalents. Objective verbs which are connected with their objects directlyare transitive verbs, all others – intransitive.

As to their morphemes we find a greater variety and abundance ofstem-building affixes in Russian (в-, вз-, воз-, пери-, за-, из-, на-, над-, низ-, -ова-, -ствова-). In English the number of v-building suffixes is limited (-ify, -ate,-en, etc). Though the number of prefixes in English is greater (mis-, un-, be-,out-, etc).

The most productive way of forming verbs in MoE is conversion. It is notcharacteristic in Russian (because of the different structures).  We find difference in the system of thenon-finite forms, we find no gerund in Russian. The Infinitive in English ischaracterized by such categories as voice, aspect, correlation. Thetense-system of the verb is different in the two languages. In English all thetenses but the Past Indefinite and Present Indefinite are analytical. InEnglish all the tenses are tense-aspect forms but the indefinite group. InRussian practically the tenses are synthetically. Only the Future tense may beboth synthetically and analytical.

№3.The category of tense in English and in Russian compare.

There are 3 tenses in both lang-s: Past, Present and Future. But thereis difference in the number of grammatical tenses. This is because the twolang-s are different in their morphological structure. The Russian lang. has arich morphology while the morphology of the English us poor.

In English all grammatical tenses are divided into 4 large groups. Theyare: Indefinite, Continues, Perfect, Perfect Continues. The specific feature ofthe English language is that all the tenses are analytical but the Present andthe Past Indefinite. All tenses in English are tense-aspect forms, but theIndefinite tenses. We say that these tenses are tense-aspect forms because theyexpress both the time of an action and the character of an action (He isreading a book now).

The tense-system of the verb is different in the two languages. InEnglish all the tenses but the Past Indefinite and Present Indefinite areanalytical. In English all the tenses are tense-aspect forms but the indefinitegroup. In Russian practically the tenses are synthetically. Only the Futuretense may be both synthetically and analytical.

№4.The category of aspect in English and in Russian compare.

Both in ER is characterized by the category of aspect. But this categoryof two languages is quite different. In English the category of aspect showsthe character of an action. That is whether the action is shown as a fact or itshown in its progress in its developments (Pete reads books everyday).Practically we have two aspects in English: the continues and the non-continuescommon aspects. In Russian the c.o.a. expresses the completeness orincompleteness of an action. The perfective aspect. Subject is usuallyform in MoR with the help of prefixes (внести, вынести, занести…).  Different verbs combine withthe different number of prefixes. Usually the verb with the suffix –ну- express instantanian action. In English weused only one word (толкать, толкнуть – to push). Thereare some modern verb in Russian with the suffix –ну- which do not express instantanians actions. (вянуть, вязнуть, гаснуть, сохнуть) It depends upon the lexical meaning. The imperfective aspect.The words of imperfective aspect are formed by means of such suffixes as –ыва-, -ива-, -ва-, -а-,-я-. (переписать – переписывать,забить – забивать). In English the repetition of an action isusually expressed with the help of the prefix “re-“ (to write-torewrite). In MoR there are exist a group of words of motions which have twoforms of the imperfective aspect. The category of aspect in MoR is very closelyconnected with the lexical meaning of the word.

№5. The category of voice inEnglish and in Russian compare.

There aredifferent points of view concerning the number of voices both in ER. There isan opinion that there are 3 voices in MoR: active, middle reflexive andpassive. Grammatically we have only 2 voices in English; active and passive.(Boy reads the book. The book is read by the boy.) In the active voice thesubject is the doer of an action while in the passive voice the subject is notthe doer of an action. There are some group of verbs in MoR which are not usedin the passive voice: 1) all the intransitive verbs without the suffix «–ся»(идти, ехать,ходить), 2) reflexive verbs built uponintransitive ones (споткнуться,улыбнуться), 3) some verbs with the suffix«–ся»having a special meaning (слушать-слушаться, нести-нестись).

Thespecific feature of the English language is that the Passive voice may beformed the verbs connected with the indirect object. (She gave me a book. I wasgiven a book by her. – adv.modifier.) Let us compare the number ofactive-passive oppositions in both languages. We see that Russian have two: пишет — пишется.In English we have 10 active-passive opposition. The forms of the FutureContinues, Present Perfect Continues, Past Perfect Continues, Future PerfectContinues are not used in the Passive Voice. The category of voice is closelyconnected with the text (братья переписываются, бумаги переписываются секретарем). The instrumental case inRussian corresponds to the by-phrase in English. When the Past Particleexpresses a state – Active voice, when it expresses the action – Passive voice.The action is emphasized by the by-phrase, the adv.modifier andsometimes by the form itself. The continues perfect forms usuallyemphasize an action (the door has been shut – s.v.pr.).

№7. The category of mood inEnglish and in Russian compare.

We find 3 moods both in ER. The category of mood expresses the relationof an action to reality. (We were at home at 6 o’clock – reality, If wewere at home at 6 o’clock – unreality). The relation of an action toreality may be expressed lexically. Then we use modal verbs: конечно, обязательно,точно, etc. (Of course he will be at home now). Therelation of an action may be expressed lexically and grammatically at the sametime. Then we use modal verbs (He can do it. He may do it.). It may bephonetically with the help of intonation. The category of mood is one of themost complicated categories especially in English. Usually we speak about threemoods in Russian. (Изъявительное,повелительное и сослагательное). The number of moods in MoEis greater. The best classification of moods was introduced by Смирнитский. He finds six moods, which must be divided into direct (Indicative,imperative) and indirect (Subjunctive I, II, suppositional and conditional)moods.

№8. The Subjunctive mood inEnglish and in Russian compare.

In both languages the Subjunctive mood expresses a probable, possible,imaginary or unreal action. (If I had time I should visit you – если бы у меня быловремя, я бы посетил тебя.) There are many opinionsexists concerning the number of moods both in ER. Smirnitsky finds 4subjunctive moods in MoE: Subjunctive I, II, conditional and suppositional.There is an opinion that in MoR there are 5 subjunctive moods such as theconditional, the optative, the suppositional, the conditional optative and thesubjunctive moods. But practically we have only 4 moods. The suppositional andsubjunctive I are grammatical synonyms. They express probable, possible,imaginary actions. But there are quite different in their forms. Subjunctive Iis a syntactical form of the mood. It has only one form. Which coincides withinfinitive without “to”. (I write, he write, she write). Thesuppositional mood is an analytical form. It is formed with the help of a moodauxiliary “should +Infinitive”. (I should write, He should write). TheSI is used both in simple and in complex sentences. (It is necessary that allthe students be present at the classroom). The suppositional mood isused only in complex sentences (It is necessary that all the students shouldbe present.). SI is archaic form and it is often replaced by thesuppositional mood.  The SII and theconditional mood are also grammatical synonyms. They express unreal actions ornon-fact actions. SII is considered to be a syntactical mood. It has two forms.If the action is referred to the present or to the future it’s form coincideswith the past indefinite indicative (wrote, read). The verb “to be” is used tobe “were”. If the actions refer to the past the form of SII coincides with thePast Perfect Indicative. (If I knew it. If I had know it.) It is usually usedin subordinate clauses of the complex sentence. The conditional mood is ananalytical. It is formed with the help of a mood auxiliary (“Should orWould”). (I should read, You would read). The conditional mood is usuallyused in principle clauses of complex sentences. (If I were you I shoulddo it. – SII, conditional mood). (Referring to the past – If Ihad been you I should have done it).

The subjunctive mood in MoR is formed from the past tense form addingthe particle “бы”. It possesses thecategory of gender and number.

№9.The noun as a part of speech in E&R compare.

The meaning of the noun in both languages is the same. It expresses“thingness”. Syntactically the noun both in ER is used in the same functions:subject, object and predicative. (A boy is going to school. My father is anengineer. Look at the picture on the wall.) A peculiarity of Russian is theabundance of suffixes of subjective appraisal (братец, билетик, доченька). In English there is a suffix “-let” (booklet, leaflet). Inboth languages we find the grammatical category of number and case. But theyare different. In Russian we have practically 6 cases while in English we findonly 2 cases (the common and the possessive). The common case in English isn’tmarked while the nominative case in Russian is marked. (Cf: a table –стол, awindow – окно). The formation of the plural number is standard in English andnon-standard in Russian. Number and case are sometimes expressed by separatemorphemes in English (oxen-oxen’s). The case-morpheme – “’s” may be usedsometimes not with a noun (The man I saw yesterday’s son). Though the meaningof case in both languages is the relation of nouns to other nouns in thesentence. The possessive case is used only with nouns (Peter’s book — книга Пети).The common case in English is very widely used. It may function as any part ofthe sentence – subject, object, predicative, attributive, and adverbialmodifier. Prepositions are of great importance in English. The of-phraseis practically used with all the nouns. The difference between the possessivecase and the of-phrase is rather stylistic. The category of gender inthe two languages is different. In Russian it is morphological while in Englishit is lexical. Practically we have only one suffix in English to express thiscategory morphologically – “-ess”. In bothlanguages nouns are divided into countable and uncountable. Uncountable includesingularia tantum and pluralia tantum. In Russian there is nearly always thecorrelation between the form and between the combinability (часы стали, комитет заседает, семья ждет, сани едут).In English it is not so. (The cables are, physics is, the family is/are). Thenumber of Russian nouns having no case-forms is not large. Usually they areborrowings. (пальто,такси, кенгуру, депо).

In both languages the functions of different cases are different. InRussian only a nominative case can be the subject. Only an accusative case maybe a direct object, only a nominative or an instrumental case is used as apredicative. In English the possessive case is used practically as anattribute.

№10.The category of state in E&R compare.

In both languages exist such as asleep, awake, alike, хорошо, душно. This words expressed different states. By many Russian grammariansthis words were discussed and called different (adverbs, adjectives, predicativeadverbs or adjectives). Sherba was the first to say that these words form anindependent part of speech and it was called the category of state. In Englishsuch words as asleep, awake. Ilyish called them stative, Хаймович called them add-link, and some others called them the words of thecategory of state or predicative. Usually such words are referred to theseclass: 1) words beginning with “a-“ - which is a prefix (alive, asleep, etc), 2) words beginning with “a-“  — which is not a prefix (afraid, awake,aloof, etc), 3) words consisting of one root which developed from adjectives oradverbs and now they denote a state (ill, glad, sorry, well, etc). The questionis rather complicated because different grammarians refer different words ofthis class. Жигайло, Иванова, Йофик refer to this class only the words beginning with “a-“. There isan opinion that this class is very rich in words expressing a state. (Лейкина refers to this class such words as in, up, down, on, etc. e.g. what’s up?).Different opinion exist: 1) the words of the category of state form anindependent part of speech. It may be characterized: semantically,morphologically and semantically. Professor Ilyish said that semantically theydenote a state, morphologically they are characterized by the element “a-“,and syntactically they are used as a predicative. (He is asleep –comp.nom.pred.) 2) The words of the type “asleep” do not from an independentpart of speech. There are predicative adjectives. This point of view was putforward by professor Бархударов. 3) The words of the type “alive” do not forma grammatical category, they form a lexically category. This is because a statemay be expressed by different parts of speech: 1) by noun (it’s time tohave dinner), 2) by adj. (he is happy or unhappy) and 3) by participleII (The house is destroyed). This point of view was put forward by professor Вилюман.

№11.The adjective as a part of speech in E&R compare.

Both in English and in Russian the adjective has the same meanings. Itexpresses the quality or the characteristics of an action. The adj. ischaracterized in the two languages by the same syntactical functions. They areattribute and the predicative. (An interesting book. A book is interesting).Morphologically the adj-e in ER is different. The Russian adj-e is morechangeable. It’s characterized by such morphological categories as the categoryof gender, number, case and the category of the degrees of comparison. (интересная книга –интересные книги, яркое солнце, интересный собеседник). The adj-e has only one grammatical category – the category of thedegrees of comparison. (red-redder-the reddest, good-better-the best). Thereare 3 degrees of comparison of adj-s. In both languages the positive degree,the comparative and the superlative. The positive degree in English is notmarked (red, beautiful) while in Russian it is marked (красивый, красивая, красивое). In English adj-s are monosemantic, they have practically onegrammatical meaning, while in Russian the adj-e is polysemantic (хороший has such gram-l m-gs as masculine gender, singular number, nominativecase, the positive degree). But the synthetic comparative as красивее, лучшее и сильнее is monosemantic in Russian as well. In Russian most qualitativeadjectives have short forms, which are usually used as predicative. Thecombinability of adjectives is also different in the 2 lang-s. In English weusually speak about lexical and lexical-grammatical combinability. In Russianthe grammatical combinability is of great importance (широкое окно, коричневый стол).The English adjective may have its right-hand connection with the prop-word“one” (a good one, a nice one). There are some adj-ves in Russian thesyntactical function of which changes the meaning (present, ill, glad; the presentsituation (not equal) the student is present). Russian adjectives arecharacterized by the so-called suffixes of subjective appraisal (длинненький, длиннющий, длинноватый). In both languages the adj is divided into two groups: qualitative,relative. The number of relative adj-s is much greater in Russian. Russianrelative adj-s are usually rendered into English by a noun in the common case (настольная лампа – a table lamp). Among the relative adj-s in the Russian lan-ge. Thereis a group of possessive adj-s (Ольгин, мамин, отцов).

№12.Parts of speech in E&R compare.

Both in RE the vocabulary is classified into parts of speech. The wordsare classified into parts of speech according to three main principals:lexical, morphological and syntactical. ER belong to the Indo-European familyof the languages. They have much in common. There are many words which both inlanguages having the same root morpheme: sister, brother, mother, etc.Practically we find the same parts of speech in both languages. But there isnot article in Russian. Words having one and the same meaning may belong todifferent parts of speech. (тишина, тихий, тихо; tosleep, asleep, sleepy). This shows that the lexical meaning only is not enoughto classify the vocabulary into parts of speech. The Russian language issyntactical, while the English is analytical. In Russian the morphologicalprinciple is a great importance when we classify words into parts of speech.The English morphology is poor and also the syntactical principle and thecombinability of words are of great importance. (a black stone, a stone wall).The parts of speech in both languages are divided into: notional words andform-words order and empty words. Such parts of speech as the noun, the verb,the adjective, the pronoun, and the stative are notional parts of speech. Butthe conjunction, the preposition, the particle, the article are formal parts ofspeech. So in both languages there are some words, which forward from one intoanother parts of speech.

№13.The adverb as a part of speech in E&R compare.

The adverb is a notional part of speech both in ER. Therefore it ischaracterized lexically, morphologically and syntactically. The lexicalmeaning. The adverb in both languages denotes some circumstances underwhich an action takes place. It may also denote some characteristics of anaction or of a quality. (He has come late. Он пришел поздно. He is here. Он здесь). These adverbs express somecircumstances under which an action takes place. The syntactical functions ofthe adverb are also the same both in ER. It performs the syntactical functionthat of an adverbial modifier. (He is here. Он здесь. – the adverbial modifier of place). The adverb in the 2 languages mayperform the syntactical functions of different adv. Modifiers such as time,place, manner, cause, purpose and so on. (He will come tomorrow. Hespeaks fluently.). As to the syntactical relations of the adverb towords of other classes, it is characterized by being connected with theverb, adjective and adverb. (He runs quickly. – verb;He is very clever. – adj; He acts very cleverly.- adverb). The adverb may be also connected with the noun, but thisis not a characteristic feature of the adverb. (My friend lives in the roomopposite. — noun). As to the morphological characteristics a partof adverbs in both languages has the degrees of comparison. (slowly-more slowly-themost slowly). All the adverbs in both languages are divided into 2 largegroups. They are: Circumstantial, Qualitative. They are different both in theirlexical meaning, grammatical char-s and word-formation. Circumstantial adverbsare those adverbs, which denote the circumstances under which an action takesplace (here, there, late, здесь, теперь, там, тогда). While the qualitative adverbs do not express any externalcircumstances. They express the characteristics of an action or a quality.(slowly, fluently, badly). Qualitative adverbs are used in the function of anadverbial modifier of manner. (He runs quickly.) The circumstantialadverbs perform the function of adverbial modifiers but manner. (He was there.He will come tomorrow.) The circumstantial adverbs are always connected withthe verb, they are unchangeable. The qualitative adverbs may be connected withverb, adj, adverb.

№14.Word-combination in E&R. Their definition and classification.                                                                                     

The word-combination both in ER is characterized by the followingfeatures. Practically the word-combination consist of two or more notionalwords (a brown table). There is an opinion that a word-combination may includetwo or more any words (a table, a book). Some grammarians thinks that itis a word-combination, while the sentence may be expressed by one word only,because the sentence possesses a complete intonation. The word-combination haspractically no intonation. Therefore the word-combination is not a unit ofcommunication. The word-combination has no predication. If we say “a blacktable” we are not quite sure what tense is meant here. Therefore the w-c has nopredicative relations, such as the relation of person, tense, modality. Whilethe main feature of the sentence is that expresses a predication. The w-c areusually build on the basis of one notional word. This notional word is usuallycalled the pivotal word of the main word. The w-c are usually classifiedin accordance with their pivotal words. We may have such w-c as: 1) Substantialw-c (a red rose, красная роза);2) adjectival; 3) verbal (to give lessons, to read books); 4) adverbial (quitenear, совсем близко). W-cs both in ER may be classified into: — free syntactical comb-s,phraseological units. Free syntactical combinations are such combinations thepart of which may be freely replaced (a large table – a large brown table). Aphraseological unit is understood as a whole and its parts are not freelyreplaced (to show the white feather-струсить, танцевать от печки-to begin from the very beginning). A w-c may also classified accordingto their relations between the words in them. When we may have: attributivecombinations (a young man, a brown table), objective (to read a book),adverbial (coming tomorrow, читал стоя/сидя). W-c may be simple andcomplex. Simplex w-c usually consist of 2 notional words (a red rose, a goodstudent). Complex w-c consist usually of more than 2 words (to travel to a bigcity, a big red rose). W-c may be subordinative (include pivotal words, or thepivotive words) and coordinative w-c (all the element or words of they areequal – ножи и вилка, a boy and a girl).

№15. Agreement as a mode ofsyntactical connection in word-combination in ER compare.

Agreement is not often found in MoE, nut it is widely used in MoR.Agreement is used to adjust the form of modified word to the form of thepivotive word. (this room-these rooms, that room-those rooms, I have a book-hehas a book). Agreement in MoR is found in such grammatical categories asgender, number, case, and person: 1) Full forms of adjectives in MoR agree withcorresponding nouns in gender, number and case (широкий залив, широкая река, широкое озеро – gender; широкий залив – широкого залива – case; широкий залив – широкие заливы – number). In plural no agreement in gender is observed (широкие заливы – no gender). 2) Short forms of adjective do not agree in case. Insingular they agree in gender, number (город красив, площадь красива – gender; город красив – города красивы – number). In Plural they agree only in number. Cardinal-numerals incase (пяти домов, пятью домами). Verbs in Future and Present Tenses agree in number and person (ученик пишет, ученики пишут).

№16. Government as a mode ofsyntactical connection in word-combination in ER compare.

Government is a variety of syntactical connection in accordance withwhich the use of the oblique case is dependent upon the grammatical meaning ofthe pivotal word. Government found both in ER. In English government is used tojoin together 2 nouns: the noun-attribute usually is used in the PossessiveCase. (A boy’s book – boys’ books, A day’s holiday, an hour’s absence).Government is used in verbal combinations where the object is expressed by apersonal pronoun (Believe me, help him). Prepositional governmentis more frequently used in MoE (to rely on him, to depend upon him). The verbgovernments through the preposition. In MoR governing words may be expressed bydifferent parts of speech: 1) by a noun (крыло птицы); 2) by an adjective (склонный к шуткам); 3) by a numeral (двадцать деревьев); 4) by a pronoun (кто-то из братьев); 5) by anInfinitive (поливать улицу); 6) by an adverb (жарко от солнца). A noun or a noun-equivalent usuallyexpresses governed words (извлекать полезное, уважение к старшим). In accordance with the part of speech the governing word belongs to,government in MoR is subdivided into: substantial (осмотр здания – gen. case), adjectival (интересный для зрителя – gen. case with a prep.), adverbial (делать весело, ему приятно), verbal (осматривать здание – accusative case, доверить врагу – dative case).

№17. Adjoining as a mode ofsyntactical connection in word-combination in ER compare.

Adjoining is a variety of syntactical connection when the dependence ofone word upon another is expressed not morphologically but semantically (Myroom-my rooms, a small room-small rooms). In MoR the mostly spread adjoining iswhen an adverb is subordinated. Pivotal words may be expressed by differentparts of speech:

1)       by a verb (твердо усвоен, хорошонаписан),

2)      by a stative (вполне возможно),

3)      by an adjective (почти черный),

4)      by an adverb (очень слабо),

5)      by a noun (езда шагом).

The Infinitive as well may be subordinated (пошел заниматься, жаль расставаться). Sometimes деепричастие may be subordinated (разговаривая смотрел на собеседника).

№18. The sentence. Itsfeatures in ER compare. 3 main ways of word connection in the sentence.

Syntax is closely connected with morphology, but it is an independentpart of grammar. It studies word-combinations and sentences. The main featuresof a sentence: 1) the sentence expresses a complete thought while w-c does not.(Cf: The table is brown. A brown table.); 2) the sentence has a definiteintonation and that is why may consist only of one word, while the w-c consistsof two or more words; 3) the sentence has a verb in a finite form (Cf: theweather is nice, the nice weather); 4) the sentence expresses predication thatis the relation between what is said to reality.

The action may be real, unreal, possible, probable and so on. The actionin the sentence may be referred to Present, Past or Future. The w-c in asentence may be connected in 3 ways: — the lexical way, the grammatical and thephonetical way.

The lexical way is the connection of words according to their lexicalmeaning (мальчик читать книга – boy read book). Of course, the lexical way is not enough. The givensentences are understandable but they are not expressed grammatically. We don’tknow the time of an action; we don’t know the type of the sentence. So, wordsin a sentence must be connected grammatically. There are 3 main grammaticalways of word connection in a sentence: 1) the forms of words, 2) the form-wordsand 3) the word order.

1.The forms of words are not typical of the English language, becausethe morphological system of it is poor. This way is typical of the Russianlanguage. (I/You/We(S/he) read(s) a book, Я читаю, ты читаешь…).

2. The form-words is of a great importance in MoE. It is also widerspread in MoR. Form-words in ER are subdivided into: 1) the determinativeform-words (we refer: in English – articles and particles while in Russian –only particles) and 2) connectives (both in ER we refer prepositions andconjunctions).

3. The word-order in MoE is of a great importance. In MoR the word-orderin the sentence is rather free. While in English the first place is usuallyoccupied by the subject, the second place is occupied by the Predicate, thethird place – by the object, the fourth place – by the adverbial modifier. (Annsees John — Аня видит Джона. John sees Ann (not equal) Джона видит Аня).

№19. Classificationsentences according to the type of communication in ER compare.

Both in English and in Russian sentences may be classified according to:1) types of communication and 2) structure.

According to the types of communication sentence in both languages aredivided into: 1) declarative, 2) interrogative and 3) imperative.

A Declarative sentence states a fact in the affirmative or negativeform. There is a great difference between English and Russian negativesentences. An English sentence may have only one negation while the Russiansentence one may have more than one. (Nobody was late. — Никто не опоздал.) An Interrogative sentence asks a question. In English there are fourwinds of questions: general, special, alternative and disjunctive. (Do youwant…?, Where do you want…?, Do you want …or…?, You want…, don’t you?). Russianinterrogative sentence may be divided into 2 groups: 1) Interrogative sentencehaving no interrogative words, sometimes they may contain such particles as ведь, как,что, неужели, разве, ли, and etc. In such cases they differ from declarative sentence inintonation. (Инженерпоехал в Москву? Его здесь нет? Разве он вам писал? Неужели он ушел?);2) Interrogative sentences having interrogative words, such as кто, что, куда,откуда, почему (Кто пришел? Что вычитаете?).  Specialattention must be paid to the indirect questions the rules of sequence oftenses must be observed.

Imperative sentences serve to induce a person to do something. Theyexpress a command, a request, an invitation, a wish, a demand, a call and soon. Declarative, interrogative and imperative sentences may be exclamatory whenthey express a strong emotion (happiness, delight, anger, etc). (What a lovelyday it is! How wonderful!) (Москва как много в этом звуке…).

№20. Classificationsentences according to the structure in ER compare.

According to the structure sentences are divided into: two-member andone-member sentences. A two-member sentence has two members: the subjectand the predicate. (Pete reads. Mary writes.) A two-member sentence may be:complete and incomplete 2 member sentences. The complete has both the subjectand the predicate. The incomplete is a sentence then one of the principle partsor both of them are missing, but can be easily understood from the sentence.Such sentences are called elliptical. (Where are you going? – To the cinema.)Elliptical sentences are usually met in colloquial speech and dialogues. A one-membersentence is a sentence, which has only one member, which is neither the subjectnor the predicate. One member makes the sentence complete. One-member sentencesare generally used in description and in emotional speech. If the main part ofa one-member sentence is expressed by a noun and the sentence is callednominal. (Dusk-of the summer night. Зима, крестьянин торжествует). A simple sentence may be extended (has both theprinciple parts of the sentence and the secondary parts. E.g. Pete reads bookeveryday.) and unextended (has only the subject and the predicate). Sentencesin both languages may be composite. Composite sentences are dividedinto: compound and complex. A compound is a sentence which consist of two ormore clauses coordinated with each other. (The darkness was thinning, but thestreet was still dimly lighting. Прозрачны лес один чернеет…). A complex sentence consist of a principal clause and one or moresubordinate clauses. (He steps quicken as he set out from the hotel.)Subordinated clauses may be of different types: subject (Where I am going isunknown), object, predicative (with link-verb), attributive, adverbial.

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