Реферат: The Impact That Stalin Had On Russia

The Impact That Stalin Had On Russia And The Russian
People Essay, Research Paper

Stalin ruled Russia from 1928 to 1953. He had some short-term impact on

Russia but he was single-minded and not pragmatic- unlike Lenin-

therefore his impact was mostly long-term.

A significant belief of Lenin?s had been that everybody should be

equal. Where women were concerned Stalin had other ideas. He reversed many

laws from the 1920s relating to women?s emancipation, in favour of

strengthening the family. For example, divorce and child support (if

unmarried) became more difficult to obtain, abortion was made illegal, and

women lost rights in the family. Reasons being that many children had been

born out of marriage. By 1930 Moscow was awash with a high number of

homeless children who had no family and were seen as a stain on the

perfect communist society that Stalin aspired to. Women lost the rights they

had received under Lenin?s rule, silently infuriating them. Traditional

Russians, tsar-like minded, were pleased to see women relegated to the

second class again. It had mixed impact for different groups.

Like the women under Stalin?s Russia, artists and freethinkers were

oppressed and reverted to the Tsarist-like censorship. Individuality was

forbidden under Stalin and writers and artists were forced to produce

work that glorified workers, peasants and the revolution. Likewise,

newspapers were strictly censored and communist papers were exclusive.

Education had been of great importance to both leaders and was strictly

controlled under Stalin. The old Tsarist forms of education e.g.

discipline and examinations were abolished. This produced a batch of poorly

educated and unruly pupils. In 1932 Stalin introduced a rigid programme

of education i.e. exams were reintroduced and much more discipline.

History was a subject Stalin wanted children to mainly focus on,

especially as he had textbooks rewritten to exaggerate his greatness and

importance to historic events, pasting himself onto many photos and erasing

people like Trotsky. This was tightly controlled by the government and

acted as propaganda in favour of Stalin also.

Outside of school time, Stalin ensured that children were encouraged to

attend political youth groups (started by Lenin) such as the

Octobrists, the Pioneers and the Komosol. These youth groups were an ongoing

concept by Lenin, tightly linked with education of the time and shaping the

children into young Stalinists. At the time these youth groups were a

continuation of a positive programme, enabling mothers to have time to

themselves and for children to socialise, interact and learn.

Stalin had a hugely positive impact on Russian peoples? leisure time.

Sport and fitness was encouraged to improve the general health of

Russian men and women. Every worker was entitled to a holiday- something that

was unheard of before the revolution. Trade unions and collective farms

played a large part in providing clubs, sports facilities, film shows

(propaganda of course), festivals and general entertainment. Children

were given the ?Archimedes club? for child inventors, ?hall of

interesting occupations?, table games club, toy pavilion and car games.

The biggest (and most positive) impact Stalin had, however, was to

industrialise Russia and create a superpower from a destitute nation. This

was a result of Stalin?s three five-year plans. This was a long-term

impact, which later enabled Stalin to conquer the surrounding countries

in Eastern Europe.

Once Stalin had established dictatorship (after 4 years), he abolished

the When Stalin put an end to the NEP so abruptly there was mixed

feelings. The Bolsheviks and extreme communists were pleased to see the NEP

go, as it did not conform to communist ideology. Conversely, the

peasants and factory owners were not. Even with the NEP in full flow 27

million people had been queuing up on the bread line, more people? those

who depended on the policy- were now to join them. There quickly followed

mass famine across Russia, yet Stalin still made the decision to

collectivise. Collectivisation was Stalin?s solution to the appalling state

of Russia?s agriculture. He believed that Russia had to be

self-sufficient. Indeed his Five Year Plans were dependent upon the peasant

farmers providing food for the workers in the factories.

Such rapid industrialisation could only be achieved if agriculture was

made more efficient, as sufficient food had to be produced to feed the

workforce. Surplus food could then be sold for money to boost the

industrial sector. This was where collectivisation came in. Collectivisation

was implemented in 1928 and was initially on a purely voluntary basis-

at a moderate and achievable pace. In practice this wasn?t the case. In

a bid to increase collective membership, peasants were granted

incentives to join the collectives in 1930. Stalin introduced the machine

tractor station in Russia, where collectives could borrow machinery and

increase their productivity in return for payment in the form of crops.


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