Реферат: How Low SelfEsteem Effects Anorexia Essay Research
How Low Self-Esteem Effects Anorexia Essay, Research Paper
How Low Self-Esteem affects Anorexia
I. Anorexia has no certain causes, but it has been
determined that psychological, enviromental, and
physiological factors play a role.
A. Self-esteem is both a psychological and
physiological factor of low self-esteem.
B. Girls and young women are most commonly associated
with low self-esteem and anorexia.
II. Self-Esteem is how you think and feel about
yourself. (McWilliams and Roger, 361) People can reach
low self-esteem levels in a variety of ways.
A. People with low self-esteem don t think they re
worth taking care of.
B. Young people s self-esteem can be effected by
parents and peers.
III. With low self-esteem, a young girl wants to have the
confidence that it seems everyone else has.
A. They may develop anorexia because they are
dissatisfied with themselves.
B. An anorexia will take drastic measures to change
her body image in an attempt to fit in.
An Conclusion: It has not yet been pin-pointed what the
exact cause of anorexia is. Many factors play a role,
including self-esteem. Children need to be showed love and
caring in order to gain the appropriate levels of
Anorexia is a big issue in society today.
Girls and boys are developing anorexic symptoms as
young as age five. While anorexia can be detected
in boys, girls, men, and/or women of all ages, the
most common ages of onset [remains] between
thirteen and twenty-two. (Levenkron,1)
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder. People
who develop anorexia are usually afraid of
becoming obese and [have] such a distorted image of
[their] body, that [they] steadfastly [refuse] to
eat even when…hungry. (Mathews, 29) The
[eating] disorder [becomes] a disease…when
problems of the mind create problems for the body.
Scientists have been studying and researching
the causes of anorexia since it was first
introduced as a disease in the 19th century. An
exact cause of anorexia has not yet been
determined, although scientists do know that one of
three factors usually play a role in the onset.
Psychological, environmental, and/or physiological
factors are most commonly the determinates of the
onset of anorexia.
The major psychological features seem to be
the fear of maturing and the fear of loss of
control. (Mathews, 31) Many anorexics confirm
that they do become fearful of losing control in
their life, which is why they turn to starvation
and deprivation. By becoming anorexic or
developing anorexic patterns, they are able to
control their food intake and weight. Scientists
also believe that most anorexics develop the
disease due to low self-esteem. Girls, who are the
most commonly associated with anorexia, are often
commonly associated with low self-esteem.
Anorexics with low self-esteem often develop the
disease in attempts to gain higher levels of
self-esteem and confidence. Low self-esteem can be
categorized as both a psychological and
physiological cause of anorexia nervosa.
Self-esteem is how you think and feel about
yourself-how you regard yourself. (McWilliams and
Roger, 361) Most people have a healthy level of
self-esteem, but in the case of anorexics and
people with low self-esteem [they] don t think
they re worth taking care of. (Johnson, 122)
This pattern of thinking develops into a lifestyle
in anorexics. The anorexia is sometimes a form of
self-punishment for not fitting in with peers, not
being accepted by family or idols, or not feeling
equal to the people they know.
Young people s self-esteem is affected by
whoever performs the role of parents, as well as a
few significant others. (Myers and Myers, 65)
When a child feels that they are not equal to
others or do not feel accepted, their self-esteem
level can severely plummet, which may lead to
diseases like anorexia.
Another way that self-esteem is affected is by
the social messages that are delivered everyday.
Many messages are sent across that people will
tease and make fun of you because of your size,
people who are overweight will never really be
emotionally happy, and that overweight men and
women are not capable of being attractive or loved.
From these messages, a young child is taught to
think that being overweight is wrong. If the
messages are molded into the child s everyday life,
he or she may grow up afraid of gaining any amount
The fear of gaining any extra weight is more
prominent in young girls and women [because they]
have been [bounded] by the thin ethic.
(Levenkron, 48) Girls and women grow up with the
Barbie doll image. Unknowingly, girls become
accustomed to the images of thin Barbie dolls and
anorexic models. The images, if set in their mind
at an early age, become a natural part of life.
The young girls may assume that Barbie is what they
should look like because Barbie is constantly in
their environment and their parents approve of the
child s playmate. A child may look at a Barbie
doll like …so many [others] look for
self-confidence and self-respect everywhere except
within themselves. (Johnson, 22)
Anorexia can also occur when girls are trying
to compete for attention or be prettier than their
friends. She may be crying out for attention from
her parents by becoming the center of attention
within her family. The anorexic may begin to have
[fears] that others will become skinnier that she
is. [That may] become a paranoid focus for the
anorexic. (Levenkron, 5)
With low self-esteem, a young girl wants to
have the confidence that it seems everyone else
has. If the girl finds that she could become
popular or attractive by losing weight, they may
take extreme measures like becoming anorexic. But
if they have to compete to stay skinny, or at least
feel as though they have to compete, the anorexic s
patterns could worsen and self-esteem levels may
People with low self-esteem are people who may:
1. Seem to verbally and actively reject
2. Are dissatisfied with themselves;
3. May even hold themselves in contempt;
4. Do not like the selves they see in
relation to others;
5. Find this picture of themselves
disagreeable and wish it were
different, but may not have confidence
in making any changes. (Myers and
The people with these tendencies are also likely to
develop anorexia. Many of the tendencies,
including being dissatisfied with themselves, are
symptoms of anorexia. People with low self-esteem
try to change anything that they can about
themselves, and their physical appearance/weight is
usually the easiest way.
Anorexia is an extremely unhealthy disease that
may bring deadly consequences. Even though an
exact cause of anorexia has not been found yet, we
can at least see ways in which it may be possible
to prevent serious cases of anorexia. In The
Dynamics of Human Communication: A Laboratory
Approach, written by Gail E. Myers and Michele
Tolela Myers, it is said that positive self-esteem
is often developed in adolescents who have attitude
of acceptance by parents, clearly defined and
enforced limits and respect and latitude for
individual action with the defined limits. (65)
If children can maintain a healthy self-esteem
level, they may not feel the need to turn to
anorexia for comfort. While things like genes can
be a cause of anorexia, it can be helpful for a
parent to show that a child is accepted, which can
raise self-esteem levels.
Johnson, Carol A. Self-Esteem Comes in All Sizes:
How to be Happy and Healthy at your Natural
Weight. New York: Bantam, 1995
Levenkron, Steven. Treating and Overcoming Anorexia
Nervosa. New York: Charles Scribner s Sons,
Mathews, John R. Eating Disorders. New York:
Facts on File Inc., 1991.
McWilliams, Peter and Roger, John. Life 101:
Everything we Wish we had Learned about in
School–but didn t. California: Prelude
Myers, Gail E. and Myers, Michele The T. Dynamics
of Human Communication: A Laboratory Approach.
New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1973.