Реферат: How ATV
How ATV’s Work Essay, Research Paper
Thesis statement: All terrain vehicles are helpful and useful and I will
explain how they work and how to fix them in this paper.
Outline: Inn this paper I will discuss ATV?s and general knowledge and
getting them wet. I also will discuss their origin and how they need care and
how to keep them doing good for a long time.
What is an ATV? It is an All Terrain Vehicle, also called three or
four wheelers. It is also called a quad or ATV. An ATV is built to go
where other vehicles cannot go. ATV?s are also built to handle a lot of
stress and abuse. ATV?s are virtually indestructible; however, they have a
few weaknesses and it is important to know and understand those few
weaknesses. You should always do a complete check of your ATV before
riding. Second, ATV?s also provide power and speed. There are also
amphibian ATV?s that float and go like a boat. ATV?s were first ?work?
vehicles for telephone and electrical linemen and other types of people.
They used the ATV?s to get from one pole to another that went over
difficult terrain where 4×4 trucks could not go.
(Estrem ATV?s 10)
Second, you do not need a special permit or driver?s license to drive
a ATV although special training is recommend by several manufacturers
and some even give seminars and free classes. I believe that some
company?s give cash back to people who take classes. I ,myself, have not
taken any of these classes. There are no age limits or restrictions because
these are not operated on public streets, roads or highways. ATV?s are
?Off-road? machines. There is also safety gear to protect you from harm.
These accessories include helmets, gloves, boots, chest protectors and so
(Estrem ATV?s 10-11)
Third, ATV?s need some type of power plant to propel them. The types of
power plants that are most common are the two stroke engine and the four
stroke engine (A stroke is one movement of the piston Microsoft Encarta
96 Internal Combustion Engine). The general principle of the two-stroke
engine is to shorten the periods in which fuel is put into the combustion
chamber and in which the spent gases are exhausted to a small fraction of
the duration of a stroke instead of allowing each of these operations to
occupy a full stroke. In the simplest type of two-stroke engine, the poppet
valves are replaced by sleeve valves or ports (openings in the cylinder wall
that are uncovered by the piston at the end of its outward travel). In the
two-stroke cycle, the fuel mixture or air is introduced through the intake
port when the piston is fully withdrawn from the cylinder. The
compression then stroke follows, and the charge is ignited when the piston
reaches the end of this stroke. The piston then moves outward on the power
stroke, uncovering the exhaust port and permitting the gases to escape from
the combustion chamber.1 The four stroke model has four strokes instead
of two. The strokes are Intake, into which a mixture of gas and air are
pulled into the cylinder. Second, Compression, where the piston moves up
and the gases are compressed. The Third is power in which the spark plug
fires and ignites the compressed gases, And last is exhaust in which the
gases that were burned are expels through the exhaust then the procedure
repeats itself. The most common type of ATV (Three and Four wheelers)
Manufactures are Yamaha, Honda, Kawasaki, Hosquravana, Suzuki and
Polaris. There are several other brands but for time?s sake I have only listed
a few of the most popular ones. ATV?s come in a variety of sizes and
powers. from a small 80cc to a huge two stroke 600cc! I own a 1989
Yamaha Breeze and have to repair it quite often. There are some simple
things to do that are cheap and will save money in the long run. For
example adding transmission fluid or crankcase oil could save hundreds at
a repair shop. Some times repairs get challenging as your quad (ATV) ages
it will need special care such as an oil change, Brake pads, spark plugs
ETC. You may even need to rebuild the engine. This involves a complete
stripdown. You generally replace the piston, rings and valve guide seals. If
you do a lot of water riding you should do maintenance more often. If you
should your quad drown out follow these four simple steps.
(Microsoft Encarta 96 Internal Combustion Engine)
Step one is to pull the quad out of the water. Pop the lid off the
airbox to see if that?s where the trouble is. If there is water in the spark
plug dry it off and set it aside. Dry with a cloth, if possible. If the air filter
is wet ring it out. Step two is if it?s a four stroke, turn off the key and kick
the water out. Watch it blow out the exhaust and cylinder head. Step three
is to drain the float bowl. (If you suspect that water got in the tank )Which
is very hard, set it on it?s wheels and let the water fall to the bottom and
turn the fuel petcock to reserve and drain for a second or so. Step four is
once all the water is out is to replace the spark plug and the air filter. Pull
the choke and try to start it. It will probably spit and sputter for a few
minutes but DO NOT hit the throttle or you could do serious damage. If it
won?t start you better start pushing it home you probably have gotten the
stator wet or one of the CDI boxes. which are sealed and are hard to get to.
If you can check over the exposed electrical connections and dry them and
get it to start good. but if it still will not start go home and begin the
stripdown which involves a complete inspection of all electrical systems.
Just what does oil do for my motor anyway? Several things; It keeps
all the moving parts inside from actually touching each other. Each part is
coated with a very thin layer of oil called the hydrodynamic layer. This thin
layer clings to every internal part and when two parts come into contact with
each other, the oil layer resists being squeezed out between them so they
(hopefully) never actually touch except for any high spots in the machined
surface. Stopping anything more than just the high spots from touching is the
«boundary layer», an ultra thin last ditch layer for protection This thin layer
of oil reduces the friction and resulting frictional heat and metal-to metal
transfer galling from happening.
Speaking of heat, another job of oil is to carry heat away from the hot
spots to be transferred to a cooler area of the motor, usually the crankcases
or an oil cooler if available, by convection. Convection is the passage of heat
from a hot object to a cooler one. Heat tries to equalize within a motor and
oil is one of the conduits for it.
Finally, oil carries away combustion by-products, coats them and
holds them in suspension to prevent these substances from attacking the
internal motor parts. Combustion by-products like water or acids consisting
of partially burnt gasoline that manage to get passed the rings and would
damage any exposed metal if the engine’s oil didn’t disburse them. However
there is a limit to the amount of contaminants that the oil can safely handle.
When the limit is reached, they fall out of suspension and collect in the
bottom of the engines crankcases as sludge. This sludge has no lubrication
value, no heat transfer ability and since it is almost pure contaminants, can’t
pick up any more. It’s only function once it has collected on the bottom of
the crankcases is to start contaminating any fresh oil that is introduced
during an oil change.
How to get rid of sludge once formed? Disassemble your motor and
flush it out! So don’t let sludge form in the first place! CHANGE YOUR
OIL EVERY 5 TANKS OF FUEL FOR AIR-COOLED 4-STROKES, 7 IF
WATER-COOLED. Why a longer interval for water-cooled engines?
Water-cooled motors run cooler so the oil isn’t subjected to the higher
temperatures that occur in an air-cooled motor. Oil lasts much longer if kept
under 200°F. So measure your oil temperature with a digital cooking
thermometer inserted into the dipstick hole. If you regularly are on the high
side of 200°F then consider the addition of an oil cooler. Your motor will
thank you with a longer service life.
After you finish inspecting and completing oil change, water
damage, repair and sealing you are ready to ride instead of repair. Warning
these tips are for advanced riders only. If you are a beginner do not try this
at home or serious injury may result. On the way to the jump accelerate to
a comfortable speed, the faster you go the higher your quad will go. Once
you become airborne control is of the utmost importance. If your front ends
starts to fall forward lean back and pull on the handlebars. You can also hit
the gas and it will level you out. If your back end gets to high lean forward
and/or pull the front brake (warning do not have the brake on once you
land or you will flip.) The art of jumping an all terrain vehicle is a very
delicate one. It is the type of art that if you do good at it people will talk
about it for a while or if you mess up it could be your last or you will see
emergency medical personnel.
(Dirt Wheels Magazine p59)
After you learn the other stuff you are ready to ride your ATV listed
Below are some of the worlds greatest riding areas. For the central USA
head for Colorado, Once there you?ll find the north hills sand dunes and the
state is so diverse you will not have to travel far to find mountains. For the
East and the Northeast head for the Allegheny national forest in
Pennsylvania. It provides 109 miles of trails and a five hundred thousand
acre hardwood forest. The varied terrain includes hills, plateaus, valleys,
rivers and so on. Camping is permitted throughout the area and some
campgrounds even have showers. For the Midwest head for Silver lake sand
dunes in Michigan. There you will find sandy trails, lakes, ponds and hills
and it is quite comfortable. In the Northwest The Baja California
Peninsula(Mexico) is great for ATV riding. There are wide open spaces
including mountains and valleys. The national recreational trails fund act,
one part of the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act
(ISTEA), has provided $7.3 million for 1998 for recreational trails
nationwide. Montana’s share, $95,600 is administered by the Parks Division
of Fish, Wildlife & Parks. Applications for 1998 National Recreational Trail
Funding are now available.
nation?s State Trails Advisory Committee
Montana’s first State Trails Advisory Committee (STAC) was
appointed by Patrick Graham, Director of Fish Wildlife & Parks, in 1992.
The committee’s purpose is to advise the department on the expenditure of
National Recreation Trails Fund Act Moines and the development of a state
trails plan, the provision of training and information for Montana’s trails
communities and general advice on statewide trails issues.
The State Trails Advisory Committee is currently searching for trail
enthusiasts to fill the alternate position of ATV riding.
In addition a new type of ATV Riding and racing is returning. PACE
Motor Sports, promoter of the A.M.A. Supercross Series and their United
States Hot Rod Association division are bringing stadium off-road racing
back. The U.S. Off Road Championship Series will feature a variety of
competition classes for off-road trucks, buggies, ATVs and motorcycles.
The Pro Quad class will feature America’s best ATV racers, including
current GNC champion Shane Hitt, two-time GNC champ Tim Farr, Doug
Eichner, Mark Erhardt, Kory Ellis, Harold «BumbleBee» Goodman and
dozens of other top pro ATV racers. The Pro Quad class will have the
following displacement limits: 330cc for single-cylinder two-strokes, 410cc
for twin-cylinder two-strokes and 550cc for four-strokes. Expect to see
screaming Yamaha Banshees competing against big-bore Honda 250Rs and
Suzuki Quadracers. Starts will be in multiple rows, most likely with five
quads per row.
Another key element in the series will be the off-road trucks. Called
Stadium Sport trucks, these four- or six-cylinder pick-ups based on SCORE
and SODA class 7S race trucks will feature mini- or mid-sized bodies and
create more horsepower that a stock V-8!
Along with the trucks will be the equally exciting Super Modified
Buggy class. At home on sand, dirt, or the surface of Mars, these
competition-designed vehicles spend as much time on their roll bars as they
do on their tires. The series will feature another buggy class called the
Stadium Lites. The Lites are an ultra-quick, lightweight version of the
Supers and are based on Honda’s Odessey/Pilot line of full roll cage ATVs.
Finally, the Stadium Thunder Bikes will wow the crowd with high-flying
action. These big, bad, four-stroke bikes are the same machines used from
Baja to Supercross. (Internet VIA America Online Internet Provider)
In Conclusion ATV?s are fun yet dangerous. ATV?s require a lot of
care and maintenance but they will give you a good feeling in life that
cannot be matched. I have discussed Water damage and how to prevent it,
good riding spots and how to care for the major parts of your ATV. I have
also told about the the renewed interest of ATV stadium riding and racing. I
have not tried this but it may be fun. Please though observe all rules and
safety protocols to prevent injury or death. If you respect the laws and use
common sense and care ATV riding and racing can be an enjoyable