Реферат: How ATV

How ATV’s Work Essay, Research Paper

Thesis statement: All terrain vehicles are helpful and useful and I will

explain how they work and how to fix them in this paper.

Outline: Inn this paper I will discuss ATV?s and general knowledge and

getting them wet. I also will discuss their origin and how they need care and

how to keep them doing good for a long time.

What is an ATV? It is an All Terrain Vehicle, also called three or

four wheelers. It is also called a quad or ATV. An ATV is built to go

where other vehicles cannot go. ATV?s are also built to handle a lot of

stress and abuse. ATV?s are virtually indestructible; however, they have a

few weaknesses and it is important to know and understand those few

weaknesses. You should always do a complete check of your ATV before

riding. Second, ATV?s also provide power and speed. There are also

amphibian ATV?s that float and go like a boat. ATV?s were first ?work?

vehicles for telephone and electrical linemen and other types of people.

They used the ATV?s to get from one pole to another that went over

difficult terrain where 4×4 trucks could not go.

(Estrem ATV?s 10)

Second, you do not need a special permit or driver?s license to drive

a ATV although special training is recommend by several manufacturers

and some even give seminars and free classes. I believe that some

company?s give cash back to people who take classes. I ,myself, have not

taken any of these classes. There are no age limits or restrictions because

these are not operated on public streets, roads or highways. ATV?s are

?Off-road? machines. There is also safety gear to protect you from harm.

These accessories include helmets, gloves, boots, chest protectors and so


(Estrem ATV?s 10-11)

Third, ATV?s need some type of power plant to propel them. The types of

power plants that are most common are the two stroke engine and the four

stroke engine (A stroke is one movement of the piston Microsoft Encarta

96 Internal Combustion Engine). The general principle of the two-stroke

engine is to shorten the periods in which fuel is put into the combustion

chamber and in which the spent gases are exhausted to a small fraction of

the duration of a stroke instead of allowing each of these operations to

occupy a full stroke. In the simplest type of two-stroke engine, the poppet

valves are replaced by sleeve valves or ports (openings in the cylinder wall

that are uncovered by the piston at the end of its outward travel). In the

two-stroke cycle, the fuel mixture or air is introduced through the intake

port when the piston is fully withdrawn from the cylinder. The

compression then stroke follows, and the charge is ignited when the piston

reaches the end of this stroke. The piston then moves outward on the power

stroke, uncovering the exhaust port and permitting the gases to escape from

the combustion chamber.1 The four stroke model has four strokes instead

of two. The strokes are Intake, into which a mixture of gas and air are

pulled into the cylinder. Second, Compression, where the piston moves up

and the gases are compressed. The Third is power in which the spark plug

fires and ignites the compressed gases, And last is exhaust in which the

gases that were burned are expels through the exhaust then the procedure

repeats itself. The most common type of ATV (Three and Four wheelers)

Manufactures are Yamaha, Honda, Kawasaki, Hosquravana, Suzuki and

Polaris. There are several other brands but for time?s sake I have only listed

a few of the most popular ones. ATV?s come in a variety of sizes and

powers. from a small 80cc to a huge two stroke 600cc! I own a 1989

Yamaha Breeze and have to repair it quite often. There are some simple

things to do that are cheap and will save money in the long run. For

example adding transmission fluid or crankcase oil could save hundreds at

a repair shop. Some times repairs get challenging as your quad (ATV) ages

it will need special care such as an oil change, Brake pads, spark plugs

ETC. You may even need to rebuild the engine. This involves a complete

stripdown. You generally replace the piston, rings and valve guide seals. If

you do a lot of water riding you should do maintenance more often. If you

should your quad drown out follow these four simple steps.

(Microsoft Encarta 96 Internal Combustion Engine)

Step one is to pull the quad out of the water. Pop the lid off the

airbox to see if that?s where the trouble is. If there is water in the spark

plug dry it off and set it aside. Dry with a cloth, if possible. If the air filter

is wet ring it out. Step two is if it?s a four stroke, turn off the key and kick

the water out. Watch it blow out the exhaust and cylinder head. Step three

is to drain the float bowl. (If you suspect that water got in the tank )Which

is very hard, set it on it?s wheels and let the water fall to the bottom and

turn the fuel petcock to reserve and drain for a second or so. Step four is

once all the water is out is to replace the spark plug and the air filter. Pull

the choke and try to start it. It will probably spit and sputter for a few

minutes but DO NOT hit the throttle or you could do serious damage. If it

won?t start you better start pushing it home you probably have gotten the

stator wet or one of the CDI boxes. which are sealed and are hard to get to.

If you can check over the exposed electrical connections and dry them and

get it to start good. but if it still will not start go home and begin the

stripdown which involves a complete inspection of all electrical systems.

Just what does oil do for my motor anyway? Several things; It keeps

all the moving parts inside from actually touching each other. Each part is

coated with a very thin layer of oil called the hydrodynamic layer. This thin

layer clings to every internal part and when two parts come into contact with

each other, the oil layer resists being squeezed out between them so they

(hopefully) never actually touch except for any high spots in the machined

surface. Stopping anything more than just the high spots from touching is the

«boundary layer», an ultra thin last ditch layer for protection This thin layer

of oil reduces the friction and resulting frictional heat and metal-to metal

transfer galling from happening.

Speaking of heat, another job of oil is to carry heat away from the hot

spots to be transferred to a cooler area of the motor, usually the crankcases

or an oil cooler if available, by convection. Convection is the passage of heat

from a hot object to a cooler one. Heat tries to equalize within a motor and

oil is one of the conduits for it.

Finally, oil carries away combustion by-products, coats them and

holds them in suspension to prevent these substances from attacking the

internal motor parts. Combustion by-products like water or acids consisting

of partially burnt gasoline that manage to get passed the rings and would

damage any exposed metal if the engine’s oil didn’t disburse them. However

there is a limit to the amount of contaminants that the oil can safely handle.

When the limit is reached, they fall out of suspension and collect in the

bottom of the engines crankcases as sludge. This sludge has no lubrication

value, no heat transfer ability and since it is almost pure contaminants, can’t

pick up any more. It’s only function once it has collected on the bottom of

the crankcases is to start contaminating any fresh oil that is introduced

during an oil change.

How to get rid of sludge once formed? Disassemble your motor and

flush it out! So don’t let sludge form in the first place! CHANGE YOUR


WATER-COOLED. Why a longer interval for water-cooled engines?

Water-cooled motors run cooler so the oil isn’t subjected to the higher

temperatures that occur in an air-cooled motor. Oil lasts much longer if kept

under 200°F. So measure your oil temperature with a digital cooking

thermometer inserted into the dipstick hole. If you regularly are on the high

side of 200°F then consider the addition of an oil cooler. Your motor will

thank you with a longer service life.

After you finish inspecting and completing oil change, water

damage, repair and sealing you are ready to ride instead of repair. Warning

these tips are for advanced riders only. If you are a beginner do not try this

at home or serious injury may result. On the way to the jump accelerate to

a comfortable speed, the faster you go the higher your quad will go. Once

you become airborne control is of the utmost importance. If your front ends

starts to fall forward lean back and pull on the handlebars. You can also hit

the gas and it will level you out. If your back end gets to high lean forward

and/or pull the front brake (warning do not have the brake on once you

land or you will flip.) The art of jumping an all terrain vehicle is a very

delicate one. It is the type of art that if you do good at it people will talk

about it for a while or if you mess up it could be your last or you will see

emergency medical personnel.

(Dirt Wheels Magazine p59)

After you learn the other stuff you are ready to ride your ATV listed

Below are some of the worlds greatest riding areas. For the central USA

head for Colorado, Once there you?ll find the north hills sand dunes and the

state is so diverse you will not have to travel far to find mountains. For the

East and the Northeast head for the Allegheny national forest in

Pennsylvania. It provides 109 miles of trails and a five hundred thousand

acre hardwood forest. The varied terrain includes hills, plateaus, valleys,

rivers and so on. Camping is permitted throughout the area and some

campgrounds even have showers. For the Midwest head for Silver lake sand

dunes in Michigan. There you will find sandy trails, lakes, ponds and hills

and it is quite comfortable. In the Northwest The Baja California

Peninsula(Mexico) is great for ATV riding. There are wide open spaces

including mountains and valleys. The national recreational trails fund act,

one part of the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act

(ISTEA), has provided $7.3 million for 1998 for recreational trails

nationwide. Montana’s share, $95,600 is administered by the Parks Division

of Fish, Wildlife & Parks. Applications for 1998 National Recreational Trail

Funding are now available.

nation?s State Trails Advisory Committee

Montana’s first State Trails Advisory Committee (STAC) was

appointed by Patrick Graham, Director of Fish Wildlife & Parks, in 1992.

The committee’s purpose is to advise the department on the expenditure of

National Recreation Trails Fund Act Moines and the development of a state

trails plan, the provision of training and information for Montana’s trails

communities and general advice on statewide trails issues.

The State Trails Advisory Committee is currently searching for trail

enthusiasts to fill the alternate position of ATV riding.

In addition a new type of ATV Riding and racing is returning. PACE

Motor Sports, promoter of the A.M.A. Supercross Series and their United

States Hot Rod Association division are bringing stadium off-road racing

back. The U.S. Off Road Championship Series will feature a variety of

competition classes for off-road trucks, buggies, ATVs and motorcycles.

The Pro Quad class will feature America’s best ATV racers, including

current GNC champion Shane Hitt, two-time GNC champ Tim Farr, Doug

Eichner, Mark Erhardt, Kory Ellis, Harold «BumbleBee» Goodman and

dozens of other top pro ATV racers. The Pro Quad class will have the

following displacement limits: 330cc for single-cylinder two-strokes, 410cc

for twin-cylinder two-strokes and 550cc for four-strokes. Expect to see

screaming Yamaha Banshees competing against big-bore Honda 250Rs and

Suzuki Quadracers. Starts will be in multiple rows, most likely with five

quads per row.

Another key element in the series will be the off-road trucks. Called

Stadium Sport trucks, these four- or six-cylinder pick-ups based on SCORE

and SODA class 7S race trucks will feature mini- or mid-sized bodies and

create more horsepower that a stock V-8!

Along with the trucks will be the equally exciting Super Modified

Buggy class. At home on sand, dirt, or the surface of Mars, these

competition-designed vehicles spend as much time on their roll bars as they

do on their tires. The series will feature another buggy class called the

Stadium Lites. The Lites are an ultra-quick, lightweight version of the

Supers and are based on Honda’s Odessey/Pilot line of full roll cage ATVs.

Finally, the Stadium Thunder Bikes will wow the crowd with high-flying

action. These big, bad, four-stroke bikes are the same machines used from

Baja to Supercross. (Internet VIA America Online Internet Provider)

In Conclusion ATV?s are fun yet dangerous. ATV?s require a lot of

care and maintenance but they will give you a good feeling in life that

cannot be matched. I have discussed Water damage and how to prevent it,

good riding spots and how to care for the major parts of your ATV. I have

also told about the the renewed interest of ATV stadium riding and racing. I

have not tried this but it may be fun. Please though observe all rules and

safety protocols to prevent injury or death. If you respect the laws and use

common sense and care ATV riding and racing can be an enjoyable


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