Реферат: Israel 2 Essay Research Paper Israel is

Israel 2 Essay, Research Paper

Israel is a country in southwestern Asia. It lies at the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. Egypt borders it on the southwest, Jordan in the east, Syria on the north. The total area of Israel is about 20,700 square kilometers (about 8,000 square miles). Israel stretches north to south to a maximum length of about 420 kilometers, from east to west it varies from 16 to 115 kilometers. Encarta

Israel has a diversity of landforms. The highest areas are found in the mountainous regions in the north. Har Meron at 3,963 feet is the highest point in the country. South of Gailee mountains are the Rocky limestone terraced hills and valley of Samaria and Judea by the Plain of Esdraelon. The Negev, a partly mountainous triangular desert makes up 60% of Israel s land area. Encarta

Israel climate is Mediterranean. It has mild, moist rainy winters and hot, dry summers. Temperatures varies considerably with altitude, exposure to the sea, and predominant winds. January is normally the coldest month and August the warmest. In upland regions such as Jerusalem, January temperatures average 9 degrees Celsius (48 Degrees Fahrenheit) while August temperatures average 24 degrees Celsius (75 degrees Fahrenheit). In coastal plains, including Haifa and Tel Aviv Yafo, January averages 12 degrees Celsius (54 degrees Fahrenheit) and August averages 25 degrees Celsius (77 degrees Fahrenheit). The highest and lowest elevations are subject to extremes: frost occurs a few days a year in mountainous inland regions, while summer temperatures can reach the upper 30 degrees Celsius (lower 100degree Fahrenheit) in the Jordan valley and in the southern desert regions. Israel subtropical (it borders the tropical zone) desert is hot and dry year round. The northern mountainous area has temperature variations with some freezing and even an occasional snow. Parts of the south may receive but one inch of rain annually; however, the coastal and the Upper Galilee regions receive from twenty-five to forty five inches of rain. Frequent summer droughts, especially in the southern desert region, make extensive irrigation a necessity. Heavy rains in these and other area can cause floods and erosion. Enclopedia.com

Much of Israel s desert contains poor soil, the northern Negev, the coastal plains, and the interior valleys provide patches of productive soils. Twenty one percent of Israel s land is used for crops or orchards. Encyclopedia.com Most cultivable soils in Israel require irrigation and careful management; of 4,370 square kilometers under cultivation, 44% is irrigated. Encarta The Dead Sea contains valuable minerals such as potash, bromine, and magnesium, all which are exploited mainly for export. The Negev contains deposits of many minerals, including Copper, Phosphate, Bromine and clay. Small quantities of oil and natural gas are also mined from areas near the Dead Sea and south of Tel Aviv Yafo. Encarta

The unnavigable Jordan River forms the northern portion of the borders between Israel and Jordan and between the West Bank and Jordan. The rivers flows through the Sea of Galilee which provides many species of fish and supplies more than half of Israel s fresh water. The Jordan empties into the Dead Sea, a highly saline lake supplying many important minerals. Parts of the Dead Sea lie in Israel, Jordan, and the West Bank. The Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea lie below sea level; the shore of the Dead Sea is the lowest point on the earth s surface. The coastline of Israel including the country s western edge of the Mediterranean Sea and its southern tip of the Red Sea, stretches for 273 kilometers. Apart from the limited sections of cliffs rising ten to forty meters (30 to 120 feet), the has few headlands or indentation; much of it is low- lying and back by sand dunes. Haifa, a natural harbor in the northern part of the country, and Ashdod, an artificial deep water port to the south, serve as the main sea ports on the Mediterranean. The port of Elat on the Gulf of Agaba provides Israel s only access to the Red Sea, making it extremely important to the country s shipping interest. Encyclopedia.com

Israel has a variety of natural environments. They are marked by regional differences in altitude, rainfall, topography and soils, latitude, and it produces equally varied plant life. Of about 2,500 species of plants, the majority is xerophytic, or capable of enduring prolonged dry spells. Three distinct vegetative regions, each comprising many subregions, cover Israel. The Mediterranean in most of the northern reaches steppe in the northern Negev. This variety of geographical regions supports a wide range of agricultural products, including citrus fruits, bananas, cotton, tobacco, grapes, dates, figs, olives, almonds, and avocados. Original evergreen forest largely disappeared because of the centuries of cultivation and herding. Encarta

Animal life is similarly varied. About a hundred species of mammals inhabit Israel including, wild boars, gazelles, ibexes, jackals, hyenas, wild cats, and badgers. There are three hundred and eighty species of birds including about one hundred that migrate seasonally to other areas. Partridges, cuckoos, bustards, sand grouses, and desert larks inhabit the area. A variety of reptiles, fishes and insects also prevail. Encarta

The estimated population of Israel, including residents of Golan Heights and East Jerusalem was 5,643,966, as of 1998. Population density was 257 people per square mile (666 per square mile). Israel is one of the most urbanized countries in the world. Some ninety-one percent of the population lives in communities of more than 2,000 people, and over half of Israel s population live in the metropolitan of it three largest cities, Jerusalem, Tel Aviv- Yafo, and Haifa. Encyclopedia Britannica

With a population of 602,100 in 1997, Jerusalem is the largest city. Although Israel claims the entire city as its capital, neither the United Nation nor the Palestinians recognize this claim because East Jerusalem lies in the contested West Bank. Arabs make up about 30 percent of the population. Jerusalem s economy depends on governmental administration, light industry, tourism, and higher education. Encarta

Jews and Arabs of Israel lead largely separate lives, with little social and cultural exchange. Life styles vary markedly based on such factors as country of origin, length of residence in Israel, level of religion observance, and urban or rural location. In general, family life and religious celebration play an important role in society. Popular recreational activities include camping, hiking, and going to the beach; as well use of the country s many sport facilities, libraries, and theaters. Encyclopedia.com

Many of Israel s rural Jews live in two type of cooperative communities, the kibbutz and the moshav. In the kibbutz, residents own all property collectively and contribute work in exchange for basic necessities. In a moshav, families own separate farms but cooperate in some aspect of agriculture marketing. Encarta

Israel chief means of transportation is its road network, which totals 15,464 kilometers (9,609 miles) motor vehicle ownership has increased rapidly, reaching 213 passenger vehicles per 1,000 person. Traffic congestion and accidents can be serious problems. A national company runs popular, affordable and frequent bus services in many areas. State owned railroad operates 610 kilometers (379 miles) of track. Ben Gurion National Airport near Tel Aviv – Yafo serves as the major airport. Encarta

More than 90 percent of the country consists of desert areas, unlike Israel, including the Libyan desert in the west, a part of the Sahara, and the Arabian Desert (also called the Eastern Desert), which borders the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez, in the east. The Libyan Desert (also known as the Western Desert) includes a vast sandy expanse called the Great Sand Sea. Located here are several depressions with elevations below sea level, including the Quatarra Depression, which has an area of about 20,000 square kilometers (about 7,722 square miles) and reaches a depth of 133 m (436 ft) below sea level; also found here are the oases of Siwa, Kharijah, Bahriyah, Farafra, and Dakhla. Much of the Arabian Desert occupies a plateau that rises gradually east from the Nile Valley to elevations of about 600 m (about 2,000 ft) in the east and is broken along the Red Sea coast by jagged peaks as high as about 2,100 m (about 7,000 ft) above sea level. In the extreme south, along the border with Sudan, is the Nubian Desert, an extensive region of dunes and sandy plains. The Sinai Peninsula consists of sandy desert in the north and rugged mountains in the south, with summits looming more than about 2,100 m (about 7,000 ft) above the Red Sea. Mount Catherine (Jabal Katrinah) (2,637 m/8,652 ft), the highest elevation in Egypt, is in the Sinai Peninsula, as is Mount Sinai, where, according to the Old Testament, Moses received the Ten Commandments. Encylopedia.com

The climate of Egypt is characterized by a hot season from May to September and a cool season from November to March. Extreme temperatures during both seasons are moderated by the prevailing northern winds. In the coastal region average annual temperatures range from a maximum of 37. C (99. F) to a minimum of 14. C (57. F). Wide variations of temperature occur in the deserts, ranging from a maximum of 46. C (114. F) during daylight hours to a minimum of 6. C (42. F) after sunset. During the winter season desert temperatures often drop to 0. C (32. F). The most humid area is along the Mediterranean coast, where the average annual rainfall is about 200 mm (about 8 in). Precipitation decreases rapidly to the south; Cairo receives on average only 26 mm (1 in) of rain a year, and in many desert locations it may rain only once in several years.

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