Лекция: HOG MANAGEMENT 4 страница


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1. Сложные формы герундия, § 13

2. Сложные формы причастия I

3. Глагол «should» после конструкции
типа «It is necessary that ...”

§ 22

4. Значения глаголов should, would

I. Слова и выражения для повторения.

to choose, proper, to fatten, permanent, meat, quality, pen, dam, vigorous, valuable, to raise, to develop, to rear, fibre, chicken, content, shell, to require

II. Определите, к какой части речи относятся следующие слова, и переведите их, не пользуясь словарем.

1. to provide, providing, provided, provider

2. to select, selected, selecting, selection, selective, selectively

3. harmful, harmless, to harm, the harm

III. Переведите предложения. Обратите внимание на сложные формы герундия.

1. High egg production of these hens is due to their being fed the feed of protein nature. 2. The pigs developed well because of their having been fed and cared for properly. 3. We know of this cattle breeder and of his having bred a new dairy breed. 4. They increased milk yields by having improved the feeding conditions of their cows. The farmer used this new method without having



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consulted any specialists. 6. The lecturer spoke about this beef breed and about its being raised in many countries.

IV. Переведите предложения, обратите внимание на значение слова “should”

1. It is necessary that fresh water should be given to hens. 2. It is recommended that eggs for incubation should be as fresh as pos­sible. 3. It is necessary that birds should be restricted to a certain area of land under semi-intensive system. 4. Egg productionshould be increased. 5. We should increase egg production, if we improved poultry management conditions.

Hatching and Chicken Rearing.


There are two methods of hatching: the natural method, that is, by means of a broody hen and the artificial one by means of incubators.

Incubators may be of the hot-air or hot-water type. Care should be taken in the selection of eggs for incubation. They should be of average size and proper shape. Neither badly shaped eggs nor those with very rough or thin shells should be chosen. Eggs for incubation should be clean and as fresh as possible. They should never be kept for longer than one week before setting. Five days is the usual time. The fresher are the eggs the better, since the percentage of hatching will be higher in this case. The tempera­ture and humidity in incubators are regulated automatically. It is important that ventilation should be provided.

Chicken Rearing

Chickens may be reared either by a broody hen or in various types of brooders. Battery brooders are widely used on big poultry-breeding farms because of their being adapted for large-scale re­aring over a long period.



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They consist of a series of compartments one on top of the other and all are heated by the same heating apparatus.

Being 8 weeks old, cockerels are to be separated from pullets and if they are not to be kept for breeding purposes, they should be fattened up for table. The pullets are removed to their permanent laying quarters when they are 4 to 5 months old.

No food is required for chicks for 24 hours after hatching. But they should be given warm water or milk and fine grits. Many different systems of feeding chicks are practised. The most common and successful one is to feed dry mash in hoppers opened all day long or shut periodically. In addition two feeds of grain are given to them, one in the morning and the second in the evening. It is necessary that chicks should have a free access to water as well.


Young meat chickens at about six or seven weeks are referred to as „broilers“. The quality of meat at this stage is excellent. High-quality broiler meat is achieved due to their being fed high-protein or high-energy rations. Chickens are usually raised on deep litter in intensive houses to the stage of broilers. The space, ventilation and feeding are the main factors which must be paid attention to when raising broilers. This system is spoken abo­ut as the most popular and successful method of raising chickens to the broiler stage.

Пояснения к тексту

1. by means of — посредством, с помощью, путем

2. a broody hen — наседка

3. battery brooder — батарейный брудер

4. large-scale rearing — выращивание (разведение) в большом масштабе





5. in addition — кроме того

6. to be referred to as — называться

Активные слова и выражения

to hatch, broody hen, size, to set (set), brooder, chicken, cockerel, deep litter, broiler, artificial

V. Заполните пропуски подходящими по смыслу словами:

broilers, grain, battery brooders, litter, mash, meat, incubators, hoppers, hatching, pullets

1. Eggs to be hatched in… should be of proper size and shape. 2.… may be natural and artificial.

3. Chickens are often reared in……. 4. The system of raising chickens on deep… is widely practised in rearing broilers. 5. The separation of cockerels from… is done in 8 weeks after hatching. 6. To achieve high-quality meat… are fed high-protein rations. 7. Dry… is given to the chickens in… .

8. Some… is fed to chickens as well. 9. Broilers are… chickens at the age of six to seven weeks.

VI. Выделите сложные формы герундия; переведите.

1. It has become possible to obtain a great number of chickens due to their being hatched artificially.

2. The decrease in the quali­ty of eggs may bе due to the hens' having been fed and cared for improperly. 3. We know of his having cleaned the sheep-pen. 4. The good condition of the brood mare was achieved by her having been forced to take exercise. 5. The foal is vigorous and healthy due to its having been allowed to run with its dam for six months. 6. The breeder forces the ewe to take exercise by having placed the feed some distance from her pen.

VII. Выделите сложные формы причастия и герундия в следующих предло­жениях; переведите.

1. Being raised in battery brooders, chickens develop successfully.


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2. We spoke about their chickens being raised in battery brooders. 3. Having reached the age of 4 to 5 months, pullets were removed to their permanent laying quarters. 4. The pullets were removed to their permanent laying quarters because of their having reached the age of 4 to 5 months. 5. The pullets having reached the age of 4 to 5 months, the poultry man removed them to their permanent laying quarters. 6. The percentage of hatching was rather high due to the farmer's having chosen only very fresh eggs for incubation.

7. Having chosen very fresh eggs for incubation, the farmer obtai­ned high percentage of hatching. 8. The farmer having chosen very fresh eggs for incubation, the percentage of hatching was rather high. 9. We spoke about their having increased the egg production. 10. These sows and their litters grow and develop well due to their having been kept on pasture in summer.

VIII. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на значение „should“ и „would“.

1. It is important that dry straw should be used for bedding. It is dry straw that should be used for bedding. Dry straw should be used for bedding. If we had dry straw in duck houses, we should provide better conditions for the birds. 2. Much drinking water should be provided for dairy cows. It is essential that much drink­ing water should bе provided for dairy cows. 3. If the young stock have been fed in creeps, they would have gained in weight more. 4. If this method of feeding were used, the results would bе bet­ter. 5. If colostrum were given to the foal after birth for a lon­ger period, it would be more vigorous and healthy. 6. No feeding in the morning would be required if ducks were kept on good pasture.




IX. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What are the two methods of hatching?

2. What eggs should be chosen for incubation?

3. How may chickens be reared?

4. When are cockerels separated from pullets?

5. What are chickens given after hatching?

6. What is the most common method of feeding chickens?

7. What is a broiler?

8. What is the way of achieving high-quality broiler meat?
X. Переведите на английский язык.

а) выведение (цыплят), наседка, средний размер, искусственный, закладка (яиц в инкубатор), батарейный брудер, петушок, молодка, мясной цыпленок, глубокая подстилка, выращивание цыплят

б) 1. Имеется много типов инкубаторов. 2. Инкубаторы используются для выведения цыплят. 3. Цыплят выращивают в различных типах брудеров. 4. Петушков отделяют от молодок в возрасте 8 недель. 5.Бройлеры — это мясные цыплята в возрасте 10-12 недель. 6.Бройлеров содержат на глубокой подстилке.

в) I. В крупных специализированных хозяйствах инкубация, вывод и выращивание молодняка одного и того же возраста производятся в течение всего года. 2. Чтобы добиться наивысшего процента вылупляемости, яйца закладывают в инкубатор не позднее пяти дней после снесения. 3. На качество инкубационных яиц влияют породные особенности птицы, ее возраст, условия кормления и содержания, вес и форма яиц, а также качество скорлупы. 4. Результаты инкубации яиц зависят в основном от их качества и условий инкубирования. 5. Очень важно, чтобы цыплята имели свободный доступ, как к корму, так и к воде.


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XI. Прочтите текст и составьте к нему план по-английски (по-русски).


Ducks belong to waterfowls. They may be classified in the same way as fowls, that is, egg-producing breeds, breeding breeds and table breeds. At present ducks are mostly kept for table.

It is recommended that ducks should be fed two or three times a day. A common method is to give a grain feed in the morning and in the evening and a wet mash at midday. When on free range, birds may require no feeding in the morning. The weather being frosty or very dry, they should be fed in the morning as well. Some grit and a plentiful supply of drinking water should be provided.

When fattened up for table purposes, ducks should be kept in small runs* with no swimming water and should be fed barley meal**. Ducklings are usually killed for table at 7 to 12 weeks old when they weigh 4 to 5.5 pounds.

Ducks start to lay at 6 or 7 months. They usually moult*** in June and come into lay again about the beginning of September.

Duck eggs may be hatched either by a hen or in an incubator. A hen will cover 9 to 10 duck eggs. Duck eggs being hatched in an incubator, a lower temperature is needed for them than for hen eggs.

Повторение темы „Poultry

I. Прочтите текст и объясните, чем отличаются два метода спарива­ния птиц. Догадайтесь о значении подчеркнутого слова.


То obtain fertile* eggs it is necessary to allow the cock to run with the hens for at least 14 days before taking eggs for hat­ching. Hens will continue to lay fertile eggs for 7 days after the removal of the cock and some for about 10 days. There are two main methods of mating:

1. Single pen mating in which one cock runs with a small number of hens. This system is practised in pedigree breeding.

2. Flock mating where many males run with a large number of hens.This is the common practice on commercial farms where free range is available.

II. Прочтите текст. Ответьте на вопрос: what conditions should be provided for chicks in a brooder?

Chicken Rearing

Chicks may be either reared by a broody hen or artificially.

There are various types of brooders but the principle used is the same in all of them. They are heated by some kind of heating.

The main factors in rearing chicks artificially are:1) to pro­vide enough heat, too much heat or too little heat are both harm­ful, 2) to avoid draughts** and 3) to avoid overcrowding***. The temperature of the brooder should be 95F when 24 or 36 hour old chicks are placed in it. The temperature should be gradually redu­ced to 75F when the chicks are 6 weeks old. The brooder should be cleaned every week.


*run — вольер

**barley meal — ячневая мука

***moult – линять



*fertile – оплодотворенный

**draughts — сквозняк

***overcrowding — скученность


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III. Прочтите текст. Переведите то место в тексте, где говорится об использовании мешанки для несушек.


Modern poultry growers do not usually mix their own feed. Now it is more economical to buy* mixed feed. They buy chick mash, growers mash and layers mash. Chick mash is fed for the first eight weeks. Then it is gradually replaced by growers’ mash which is fed until layers mash is introduced, which should take place when about 25 per cent of the flock have started to lay. During the year the light breed such as the White Leghorn will eat about 80 pounds of feed. Heavier breeds will average 10 pounds more.

IV. Прочтите текст и скажите, как влияет температура воды на состоя­ние и яйценоскость птиц.


Clean fresh drinking water is highly important. During summer it should be kept in a shady** place, as sun-heated water is harm­ful to the birds. In the winter time it is advisable to place water in a warm place. The birds will not drink very cold water If the birds do not get an adequate amount of water the egg production will quickly be decreased.

V. Прочтите текст и выполните задание, данное после текста.


On some poultry farms the main aim is not the production of eggs but the production of table birds.

The young meat birds at the age of about 7 weeks are known as „chickens“ in England, „broilers“ in the United States and „grillers“ in Australia. It is because of the high quality of meat that broilers are so valuable. Their meat is rich in protein, fats, mine­rals and different vitamins.



*buy — покупать


** shady – тенистый


High-nutritious feeds should predominate in broiler rations. Dry mash should always be available. Of the grains corn and wheat are most desirable. The fibre content in the ration should not be more than 4%.

There are different methods of rearing chickens to the “broiler” stage. The most popular method is keeping them on deep litter in intensive houses.

Исходя из содержания текста, закончите следующие предложения:

a) The names of young meat birds in different countries are… .

b) The feeds fed to broilers should not contain too much… .
VI. Прочтите текст и выполните задание, данное после текста


Geese grow best on unlimited range and need very little feeding in addition to pasture. They are usually unsatisfactory when kept in confinement.

Swimming water is not essential but is appreciated* by the birds. It is likely to improve fertility, though equally good results have been obtained when no water is available.

Geese are long-lived and remain prolific up to 10 years. The birds should be mated at least a month before fertile eggs are re­quired. The geese start laying when 10 or 11 months old.

When birds are on free range they will only require one feed a day to keep them in good breeding condition. During the summer months feeding may be unnecessary, but in spring the grass is often scarce and there is a need for one feed per day. This should con­sist of 20 ounces of mixed grain. It should be fed in the evening.

Eggs may be hatched either by the geese or by hens or in an incubator. Hens are generally preferred as it is essential to keep the goose laying throughout the season.A hot-water incubator is satisfactory for hatching goose eggs.



*Appreciate — (высоко) ценить, любить




Particular attention should be paid to the moisture in the machine. With both hen and incubator hatching the eggs should be sprink­led* with warm water once daily for the last 10 days.

Ответьте на вопросы (устно):

1. Are the results good when geese are grown under intensive condition?

2. Can geese grow well without swimming water?

3. When do geese require supplementary feed in addition to pasture?

4. What factor is very important in hatching goose eggs?




1. Бессоюзные определительные придаточные
предложения, § 19

2. Формы с окончанием -ing (повторение)

3. Временные формы глагола (повторение)

4. Значения слова „mean“

5. result in, result from

I. Слова и выражения для повторения.

artificial, to receive, to increase, to depend on, domestic animals, cattle breeding, service, to serve, average, to include, to need, to improve, quality, quantity, after, before, stallion, bull, ram, boar, to obtain, breeder, sire, some, the same, as… as, as well аs

II. Дайте русские эквиваленты следующих интернациональных слов:

technique, specific, protection, emphasis, tendency, coefficient, compromise, intensity, record, controller, assistant, inspector, instruction


*sprinkle – брызгать

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III. Переведите предложения. Обратите внимание на бессоюзные определи­тельные придаточные предложения.

1. The pastures the farmers divide into paddocks are grazed more profitably. 2. There are different kinds of mash the farmers use inraising poultry. 3. The ration the laying hen should receive consists of grain and mash. 4. This is the foal we spoke about yesterday.


The artificial insemination technique has received increasing attention in many countries. It has been used in all domestic animals and poultry, but it is most extensively used for cattle breed­ing. There are now few cattle-raising countries the artificial in­semination technique is not practised in.

The artificial insemination technique has many advantages over the ordinary service. By artificial insemination the number of cows served by one bull can be increased from the normal average number of between 30 and 50 per year by natural service, up to between 300 and 700 and in special cases up to 10.000 or more. By means of this method the improvement in breed type, production and quality can be more rapidly effected, provided that only tried and outstanding sires are used. A smaller amount of bulls is needed and consequently more rigid methods of selecting bulls can be practised. This results in the elimination of inferior bulls from breeding and in the improvement of the quality of the cattle. In certain cases artificial insemination may be a means of preventing infertility, since it is possible to examine a bull's semen, which cannot be done with ordinary service.

Artificial insemination technique includes semen collection, processing of semen, freezing semen and insemination techniques. When collecting semen, special attention should be paid to



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preventing any possibility of contamination by dust, dirt or chemi­cals. Clean collecting equipment is essential.

Soon after collection the semen is diluted with a diluted at the same temperature as the semen. Diluents, as milk, for instan­ce, offer protection of the sperm during temperature change. Dilu­ted bull semen can be stored at 5°C for 3 or 4 days. Ram or boar semen is ordinarily used within a day or two after collection. Stallion semen does not store well and is usually used during the first day after collection.

To bе stored for a long period, the semen should be frozen. The results the experienced breeders obtain with frozen semen have proved to be as successful as those with liquid semen. Frozen semen can be transported over long distances when stored in chests containing dry ice or liquid nitrogen. Transporting frozen semen in liquid nitrogen is the safest method of shipping for sperm preservation.

The frozen semen the breeder is going to use may bе warmed immediately to body temperature. It should bе used soon after thawing because reduced fertility results from keeping thawed semen at 5°C for several hours before insemination.

Пояснения к тексту

1. tried sire — проверенный производитель

2. offer protection — защищать

3. have proved to — оказались ...

4. is going to — собирается


1. a means — средство

to mean — означать, значить

bу means of — посредством, путем


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2. to result in — приводить к

to result from — приходить от

Активные слова и выражения

insemination, advantage, production, tried sire, inferior, infer­tility, preservation, semen, sperm, to process, to freeze (froze, frozen), to dilute, dilute, to store, means, to mean, by means of, result in, result from, fertility

IV. Составьте предложения, соединяя подходящие по смыслу части.

1. Different classes of farm animal’s a. has been rapid in all large cattle breeding countries.

2. Less bulls b. is a good method of keeping it for long periods.

3. The dilute с. should not be kept for a long time.

4. Diluted semen d. are now bred by the artificial insemination technique.

5. Freezing semen e. protects the semen during temperature change.

6. Production of high-quality f. depends on the care and management
semen of the male.

7. Progress in using artificial g. are required when artificial insemination

insemination method is used.

V. Выделите бессоюзные определительные предложения в следующих предложениях; переведите.

1. The diluted bull semen the farmer is going to use in 3 to 4 days should be kept at 5°C. 2. The number of cows the bull can serve under natural conditions may reach about 40 a year. 3. There are two main methods the breeders can use for sperm preservation. 4. The dairy cows the farmers keep for obtaining milk may be high,



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average, or low-producing. 5. The feed the sire should receive varies with the season and the condition of the animal. 6. There are many systems of fattening the farmers use in breeding beef cattle. 7. The amount of total digestible nutrients the mature horses require depends on the work done by them.

VI. Переведите следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод слов с окончанием –ing.

1. The method of artificial insemination being the most progres­sive one, the breeders widely use it in breeding different classes of farm animals. 2. Knowing the advantages of the method of artificial insemination, the cattle breeders recommend it to be used inbreeding other farm animals. 3. Having been diluted with a diluted, the bull semen may bestored at 5°C for 3 or 4 days. 4. Freez­ing semen is done in order to store it for a long period. 5. The breeders using semen soon after thawing it have good results. 6. The breeders using semensoon after thawing it, good results are usually obtained. 7. Using semen soon after thawing, the breeders obtain good results. 8. The sperm is of high quality due toits having been stored under proper conditions. 9. The processing of semen includes its dilution with some diluent in order to pro­tect the semen during the temperature change. 10. When collecting the semen, the breeders should use clean equipment. 11. The ideal succulent feed is a good pasture grass, its succulence varying with the season. 12. Pasture grasses being abundant and palatable, no grain may be given to the ram.

VII. Выберите правильную форму:

1. Our stables are (cleaning, cleaned, being cleaned) twice a week.

2. Stables (have cleaned, have been cleaned). 3. We shall (cleaning, clean, to clean) the stables to-morrow. 4. He is (cleaned, cleaning, being cleaned) the stables now. 5. Stables should(been




cleaned, to be cleaned, be cleaned) today.

VIII. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на значение “result in”, “result from”.

1. The use of the artificial insemination method has resulted in the improvement of the herd. 2. The increase in the number of cows served byоnе bull has resulted from the use of the semen of the purebred sires. 3. The use of this method has resulted in the decrease in the amount of bulls needed for breeding. 4. Lack of exercise may result in the decrease in the breeding qualities of this bull. 5. The increase in milk yields has resulted from the improvement of feeding and management conditions of the cows. 6. Controlling diseases and parasites has resulted in better growth and development of the lambs. 7. Providing bulls with un­balanced rations may result in the reduction of their vigour and activity. 8. The decrease in egg production on this farm has re­sulted from the lack of food of a protein nature.

IX. Переведите предложения, обратите внимание на значение слова „mean“.

1. The artificial insemination method is a good means of improv­ing the breeds. 2. All sires may be kept in good breeding condi­tion by means of moderate exercise and proper feeding. 3. Artifi­cial insemination means the insemination of females with sperm by means of special instruments. 4. Weaning means separating young animals from their dams. 5. Feeding chickens high-protein rations is a good means of obtaining high-quality meat.

X. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What classes of farm animals is artificial insemination used in?

2. What advantages has artificial insemination over the ordinary service?



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3. Why is a smaller amount of bulls needed in using artificial insemination?

4. What is the purpose of diluting the semen?

5. How long can diluted bull semen be stored at 5ºC?

6. How may the semen be stored for a long period?

7. What is the safest method of shipping the frozen semen?
XI. Переведите на английский язык.

а) Искусственное осеменение, преимущество, естественная (обычная) случка, проверенный производитель, семя, разбавлять, разбавитель, средство, хранить, замораживать, производительность, бесплодие, означать, оплодотворение, приводить к, происходить от, посредством

б) 1.Искусственное осеменение является важным средством разведения сельскохозяйственных животных. 2. Метод искусственного осеменения используется во многих странах, разводящих скот. 3. Используя только выдающихся производителей, мы можем улучшить
породы. 4. Чтобы хранить семя несколько дней, его нужно разбавить каким-нибудь разбавителем. 5. Замороженное семя может храниться долго.

в) 1. Искусственное осеменение, как уже установлено, является наиболее прогрессивным способом оплодотворения сельскохозяйственных животных. 2. Благодаря возможности глубокого замораживания спермы и ее длительного хранения можно создать запас спермы от наиболее ценных производителей и использовать ее, когда необходимо.

3. Значение искусственного осеменения состоит в том, что оно дает возможность улучшить породные качества животных. 4. Чтобы получать высококачественную сперму, производителя надо как следует кормить и за ним хорошо ухаживать перед сбором спермы. 5. В 1973 году было осеменено искусственно около 7591 общего поголовья коров в хозяйствах нашей страны.



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ХП. Прочтите текст и передайте его содержание по-английски (по-русски).

The Importance of Artificial insemination

The method of artificial insemination is known to be а vеrу progressive one in breeding different classes of farm animals as well as poultry and bees*. In many countries of the world more than 50 per cent of cows are now bred artificially.

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